The Role Of Tropics In Climate Change

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Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Tropical Forest Ecosystems

Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Tropical Forest Ecosystems
  • Author : Adam Markham
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2013-11-11
  • Total pages : 463
  • ISBN : 9789401727303
  • File Size : 51,6 Mb
  • Total Download : 171
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Climate change represents one of the most alarming long-term threats to ecosystems the world over. This new collection of papers provides, for the first time, an overview of the potentially serious impact that climate change may have on tropical forests. The authors, a multi-disciplinary group of leading experts in climatology, forestry, ecology and conservation biology, present a state-of-knowledge snapshot of how tropical forests are likely to react to the changes being wrought on our planet's atmosphere and climate. Tropical forests represent extraordinary harbours for biological diversity, and yet as deforestation and degradation continue apace, they are under greater pressure from human impacts than ever before. Climate change adds yet another threat to these valuable ecosystems, and this volume demonstrates just how significant a problem this may really be. The authors identify certain types of forest, including tropical montane cloud forest that may be particularly vulnerable. They also show the strong likelihood of global warming aggravating problems in already fragmented forest areas.

Dynamics of the Tropical Atmosphere and Oceans

Dynamics of the Tropical Atmosphere and Oceans
  • Author : Peter J. Webster
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release Date : 2020-06-08
  • Total pages : 529
  • ISBN : 9780470662564
  • File Size : 24,7 Mb
  • Total Download : 919
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This book presents a unique and comprehensive view of the fundamental dynamical and thermodynamic principles underlying the large circulations of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system Dynamics of The Tropical Atmosphere and Oceans provides a detailed description of macroscale tropical circulation systems such as the monsoon, the Hadley and Walker Circulations, El Niño, and the tropical ocean warm pool. These macroscale circulations interact with a myriad of higher frequency systems, ranging from convective cloud systems to migrating equatorial waves that attend the low-frequency background flow. Towards understanding and predicting these circulation systems. A comprehensive overview of the dynamics and thermodynamics of large-scale tropical atmosphere and oceans is presented using both a “reductionist” and “holistic” perspectives of the coupled tropical system. The reductionist perspective provides a detailed description of the individual elements of the ocean and atmospheric circulations. The physical nature of each component of the tropical circulation such as the Hadley and Walker circulations, the monsoon, the incursion of extratropical phenomena into the tropics, precipitation distributions, equatorial waves and disturbances described in detail. The holistic perspective provides a physical description of how the collection of the individual components produces the observed tropical weather and climate. How the collective tropical processes determine the tropical circulation and their role in global weather and climate is provided in a series of overlapping theoretical and modelling constructs. The structure of the book follows a graduated framework. Following a detailed description of tropical phenomenology, the reader is introduced to dynamical and thermodynamical constraints that guide the planetary climate and establish a critical role for the tropics. Equatorial wave theory is developed for simple and complex background flows, including the critical role played by moist processes. The manner in which the tropics and the extratropics interact is then described, followed by a discussion of the physics behind the subtropical and near-equatorial precipitation including arid regions. The El Niño phenomena and the monsoon circulations are discussed, including their covariance and predictability. Finally, the changing structure of the tropics is discussed in terms of the extent of the tropical ocean warm pool and its relationship to the intensity of global convection and climate change. Dynamics of the Tropical Atmosphere and Oceans is aimed at advanced undergraduate and early career graduate students. It also serves as an excellent general reference book for scientists interested in tropical circulations and their relationship with the broader climate system.

Tropical Forests and Adaptation to Climate Change

Tropical Forests and Adaptation to Climate Change
  • Author : Carmenza Robledo,Markku Kanninen,Lucio Pedroni
  • Publisher : CIFOR
  • Release Date : 2005-01-01
  • Total pages : 186
  • ISBN : 9789792446043
  • File Size : 10,7 Mb
  • Total Download : 426
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PDF book entitled Tropical Forests and Adaptation to Climate Change written by Carmenza Robledo,Markku Kanninen,Lucio Pedroni and published by CIFOR which was released on 2005-01-01 with total hardcover pages 186, the book become popular and critical acclaim.

Quaternary Environmental Change in the Tropics

Quaternary Environmental Change in the Tropics
  • Author : Sarah E. Metcalfe,David J. Nash
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release Date : 2012-08-24
  • Total pages : 296
  • ISBN : 9781118336175
  • File Size : 48,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 847
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The global climate changes that led to the expansion and contraction of high latitude ice sheets during the Quaternary period were associated with equally dramatic changes in tropical environments. These included shifts in vegetation zones, changes in the hydrology and ecology of lakes and rivers, and fluctuations in the size of mountain glaciers and sandy deserts. Until recently it was thought that such changes were triggered by fluctuations in the distribution of polar ice cover. Now there is increasing recognition that the tropics themselves have acted as drivers of global climate change over a range of timescales. The aim of Quaternary Environmental Change in the Tropics is to provide a synthesis of the changes that occurred in tropical terrestrial and marine systems during the Pleistocene and Holocene, complementing data-derived reconstructions with output from state-of-the-art climate models. It is targeted at final-year undergraduate students and research specialists, but will provide an introduction to tropical Quaternary research for a variety of other readers.

Effects of Past Global Change on Life

Effects of Past Global Change on Life
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources,Panel on Effects of Past Global Change on Life
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release Date : 1995-01-01
  • Total pages : 272
  • ISBN : 0309176816
  • File Size : 15,7 Mb
  • Total Download : 634
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What can we expect as global change progresses? Will there be thresholds that trigger sudden shifts in environmental conditions--or that cause catastrophic destruction of life? Effects of Past Global Change on Life explores what earth scientists are learning about the impact of large-scale environmental changes on ancient life--and how these findings may help us resolve today's environmental controversies. Leading authorities discuss historical climate trends and what can be learned from the mass extinctions and other critical periods about the rise and fall of plant and animal species in response to global change. The volume develops a picture of how environmental change has closed some evolutionary doors while opening others--including profound effects on the early members of the human family. An expert panel offers specific recommendations on expanding research and improving investigative tools--and targets historical periods and geological and biological patterns with the most promise of shedding light on future developments. This readable and informative book will be of special interest to professionals in the earth sciences and the environmental community as well as concerned policymakers.

Confronting Global Climate Change

Confronting Global Climate Change
  • Author : Mark Harris
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2019-06-07
  • Total pages : 499
  • ISBN : 9781000001785
  • File Size : 21,6 Mb
  • Total Download : 922
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This book offers a solutions-based approach to climate change problems which potentially impinge on human beings within the tropics. It largely comprises research articles with supplementary applications and illustrations. The effects of atmospheric phenomena, energy acquisition, wind power, CO2 sequestration, are linked with soils, aquatic life, reducing deforestation, rainwater harvesting and clay pot farming, climate, plant disease and food security to show that no area of life is untouched by the phenomenon of climate change. It discusses specific problem areas and provides an overview of geotechnical and sustainable solutions to lessen the impact of climate.

Our Warming Planet: Topics In Climate Dynamics

Our Warming Planet: Topics In Climate Dynamics
  • Author : Cynthia Rosenzweig,David Rind,Andrew Lacis,Danielle Peters
  • Publisher : World Scientific
  • Release Date : 2018-01-18
  • Total pages : 444
  • ISBN : 9789813148802
  • File Size : 9,7 Mb
  • Total Download : 583
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The processes and consequences of climate change are extremely heterogeneous, encompassing many different fields of study. Dr David Rind in his career at the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies and as a professor at Columbia University has had the opportunity to explore many of these subjects with colleagues from these diverse disciplines. It was therefore natural for the Lectures in Climate Change series to begin with his colleagues contributing lectures on their specific areas of expertise.This first volume, entitled Our Warming Planet: Topics in Climate Dynamics, encompasses topics such as natural and anthropogenic climate forcing, climate modeling, radiation, clouds, atmospheric dynamics/storms, hydrology, clouds, the cryosphere, paleoclimate, sea level rise, agriculture, atmospheric chemistry, and climate change education. Included with this publication are downloadable PowerPoint slides of each lecture for students and teachers around the world to be better able to understand various aspects of climate change.The lectures on climate change processes and consequences provide snapshots of the cutting-edge work being done to understand what may well be the greatest challenge of our time, in a form suitable for classroom presentation.

Forests, Water and People in the Humid Tropics

Forests, Water and People in the Humid Tropics
  • Author : International Union of Forestry Research Organizations
  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release Date : 2005-01-13
  • Total pages : 960
  • ISBN : 0521829534
  • File Size : 34,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 686
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Forests, Water and People in the Humid Tropics is the most comprehensive review available of the hydrological and physiological functioning of tropical rain forests, the environmental impacts of their disturbance and conversion to other land uses, and optimum strategies for managing them. The book brings together leading specialists in such diverse fields as tropical anthropology and human geography, environmental economics, climatology and meteorology, hydrology, geomorphology, plant and aquatic ecology, forestry and conservation agronomy. The editors have supplemented the individual contributions with invaluable overviews of the main sections and provide key pointers for future research. Specialists will find authenticated detail in chapters written by experts on a whole range of people-water-land use issues, managers and practitioners will learn more about the implications of ongoing and planned forest conversion, while scientists and students will appreciate a unique review of the literature.

Global Climate Change and Tropical Ecosystems

Global Climate Change and Tropical Ecosystems
  • Author : John M. Kimble,B.A. Stewart
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release Date : 2019-04-04
  • Total pages : 456
  • ISBN : 9781351444804
  • File Size : 16,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 349
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Tropical ecosystems - the regions between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn - play an important role in global processes, economic issues, and political concerns. In their natural state, tropical ecosystems support a large quantity of above- and below-ground biomass, and constitute a major part of the terrestrial carbon pool. Conversion of the natural ecosystem to agriculture and forestry ecosystems disturbs this ecological balance. Global Climate Change and Tropical Ecosystems presents data on carbon pool fluxes from case studies in 12 countries in tropical regions. The chapters cover: Characteristics of tropical ecosystems Soil and biotic carbon pools Impacts of land use and soil management Slash-and-burn practices Crop residue and fertility management This volume adds to the understanding of pedospheric processes in tropical ecosystems and how to better use soils as a sink for carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. With Global Climate Change and Tropical Ecosystems you will understand the link between soil productivity, environmental quality and the global carbon cycle, not only in these ecologically sensitive regions but worldwide.

Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change

Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change
  • Author : Hans Joachim Schellnhuber,Wolfgang Cramer,Wolfgang P. Cramer,Nebojsa Nakicenovic,Gary Yohe,Tom Wigley
  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release Date : 2006-02-02
  • Total pages : 407
  • ISBN : 9780521864718
  • File Size : 34,9 Mb
  • Total Download : 434
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This volume, first published in 2006, presents findings on climate change from leading international scientists, for researchers, policy-makers and engineers.

Urban Climate Challenges in the Tropics

Urban Climate Challenges in the Tropics
  • Author : Rohinton Emmanuel
  • Publisher : World Scientific
  • Release Date : 2016-03-11
  • Total pages : 384
  • ISBN : 9781783268429
  • File Size : 54,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 322
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Among the places worst hit by climate change are areas of high urban growth in the warm, humid tropics of Asia and Latin America. In these places, the global trend of rapid urbanisation and conditions of local warming compound the effects of climate change. This three-part book explores the unique local climate consequences of urban growth trajectories of tropical cities and provides strategies and design approaches to enhance the quality of life of tropical urban dwellers in the face of urban warming. Part One considers the philosophical basis of the climate challenge in this context and investigates tropical urbanism from the viewpoints of urban activity patterns and the notion of 'thermal pleasure'. Part Two explores specific, practical techniques in enhancing ventilation, shading and greenery as well as the challenges in local climate assessment in the tropics. Part Three explores the barriers and future opportunities for climate-sensitive urban planning and presents specific examples of good practice, contextualized within the wider global debate on adapting to climate change. Urban Climate Challenges in the Tropics is an indispensable companion for planners, designers, architects and students of all levels. Contents:Introduction (Rohinton Emmanuel)Achieving Thermal Pleasure in Tropical Urban Outdoors (Rohinton Emmanuel)Management of Shading and Public Places (Tzu-Ping Lin)Urban Air Ventilation in High-Density Cities in the Tropics (Edward Ng)Vegetation and Climate-sensitive Public Places (Denise H S Duarte)Urban Thermal Comfort in the Tropics (Erik Johansson)Urban Climate Mapping in the Tropics Narein Perera)Urban Climate Modeling: Challenges in the Tropics (Renganathan Giridharan)Urban Exemplars of Climate-sensitive Design (Patricia Drach)Integration of Climate Knowledge in Urban Design and Planning (Gerald Mills) Readership: Planners, designers, architects and advanced undergraduate and graduate students of architecture or planning and environmental management with a focus on the tropics. Key Features:Places the urban climate amelioration debate within the wider climate change debateFocuses specifically on an important and rapidly urbanizing region (the tropics)Provides practical advice to researchers and practitioners dealing with urban sustainability and climate sensitive design in the tropics

Renewing Local Planning to Face Climate Change in the Tropics

Renewing Local Planning to Face Climate Change in the Tropics
  • Author : Maurizio Tiepolo,Alessandro Pezzoli,Vieri Tarchiani
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2017-07-05
  • Total pages : 372
  • ISBN : 9783319590967
  • File Size : 18,7 Mb
  • Total Download : 195
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This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. This book aims to inspire decision makers and practitioners to change their approach to climate planning in the tropics through the application of modern technologies for characterizing local climate and tracking vulnerability and risk, and using decision-making tools. Drawing on 16 case studies conducted mainly in the Caribbean, Central America, Western and Eastern Africa, and South East Asia it is shown how successful integration of traditional and modern knowledge can enhance disaster risk reduction and adaptation to climate change in the tropics. The case studies encompass both rural and urban settings and cover different scales: rural communities, cities, and regions. In addition, the book looks to the future of planning by addressing topics of major importance, including residual risk integration in local development plans, damage insurance and the potential role of climate vulnerability reduction credits. In many regions of the tropics, climate planning is growing but has still very low quality. This book identifies the weaknesses and proposes effective solutions.

Sustainable Building and Built Environments to Mitigate Climate Change in the Tropics

Sustainable Building and Built Environments to Mitigate Climate Change in the Tropics
  • Author : Tri Harso Karyono,Robert Vale,Brenda Vale
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2017-02-21
  • Total pages : 273
  • ISBN : 9783319496016
  • File Size : 46,9 Mb
  • Total Download : 267
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This book offers a selection of the best papers presented during the International conference on Mitigating and Adapting Built Environments for Climate Change in the Tropics, held at Tanri Abeng University (TAU), Jakarta, Indonesia, March 2015. The book is divided into four main parts. The first part deals with the general issue of climate change, the cause and the ways to mitigate and to adapt the built environment for climate change in a number of countries. Part 2 deals with the conceptual ways to mitigate building for climate change. The ways to reduce cooling energy in tropical buildings by means of passive design. Part 3 offers papers that examine the way to overcome disasters in the city caused by climate change. The final part deals with the role of plants in mitigating and adapting built environments to climate change - the use of plants, trees and bushes to directly and indirectly reduce carbon emissions are discussed.

Ecology of Climate Change

Ecology of Climate Change
  • Author : Eric Post
  • Publisher : Princeton University Press
  • Release Date : 2013-08-11
  • Total pages : 404
  • ISBN : 9781400846139
  • File Size : 11,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 818
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Rising temperatures are affecting organisms in all of Earth's biomes, but the complexity of ecological responses to climate change has hampered the development of a conceptually unified treatment of them. In a remarkably comprehensive synthesis, this book presents past, ongoing, and future ecological responses to climate change in the context of two simplifying hypotheses, facilitation and interference, arguing that biotic interactions may be the primary driver of ecological responses to climate change across all levels of biological organization. Eric Post's synthesis and analyses of ecological consequences of climate change extend from the Late Pleistocene to the present, and through the next century of projected warming. His investigation is grounded in classic themes of enduring interest in ecology, but developed around novel conceptual and mathematical models of observed and predicted dynamics. Using stability theory as a recurring theme, Post argues that the magnitude of climatic variability may be just as important as the magnitude and direction of change in determining whether populations, communities, and species persist. He urges a more refined consideration of species interactions, emphasizing important distinctions between lateral and vertical interactions and their disparate roles in shaping responses of populations, communities, and ecosystems to climate change.

An Introduction to the Meteorology and Climate of the Tropics

An Introduction to the Meteorology and Climate of the Tropics
  • Author : J. F. P. Galvin
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release Date : 2016-01-22
  • Total pages : 328
  • ISBN : 9781119086246
  • File Size : 41,7 Mb
  • Total Download : 269
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What do we mean by the tropics? The weather and the climates it produces across the tropical zone are significantly different from those experienced by the people living in higher latitudes, so forecasters across Europe and much of North America are unfamiliar with its effects. In this book, Jim Galvin demystifies the topic in this zone that is increasingly of interest to those studying weather and climate. This book was written for weather forecasters, meteorology, environmental science and geography students as an introductory guide. It builds on the experience of the author, his professional experience in the World Area Forecast Centre at the Met Office, Exeter, using studies into the weather and climate seen within the tropical air mass conducted over many years. Its unique approach presents a practical approach to tropical weather studies, drawing on both academic and practical knowledge, covering air mass dynamics, seasonal changes, moist and dry weather, climate variability and human health in chapters and appendices that build up the overall picture, summarising our current state of knowledge. As an overview, it covers the broad range of effects connected with climate and weather in a straightforward way and is clearly illustrated throughout.

Why Forests? Why Now?

Why Forests? Why Now?
  • Author : Frances Seymour,Jonah Busch
  • Publisher : Brookings Institution Press
  • Release Date : 2016-12-27
  • Total pages : 438
  • ISBN : 9781933286860
  • File Size : 10,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 496
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Tropical forests are an undervalued asset in meeting the greatest global challenges of our time—averting climate change and promoting development. Despite their importance, tropical forests and their ecosystems are being destroyed at a high and even increasing rate in most forest-rich countries. The good news is that the science, economics, and politics are aligned to support a major international effort over the next five years to reverse tropical deforestation. Why Forests? Why Now? synthesizes the latest evidence on the importance of tropical forests in a way that is accessible to anyone interested in climate change and development and to readers already familiar with the problem of deforestation. It makes the case to decisionmakers in rich countries that rewarding developing countries for protecting their forests is urgent, affordable, and achievable.

Abrupt Climate Change

Abrupt Climate Change
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate,Polar Research Board,Ocean Studies Board,Committee on Abrupt Climate Change
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release Date : 2002-04-23
  • Total pages : 252
  • ISBN : 0309133041
  • File Size : 25,9 Mb
  • Total Download : 785
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The climate record for the past 100,000 years clearly indicates that the climate system has undergone periodic--and often extreme--shifts, sometimes in as little as a decade or less. The causes of abrupt climate changes have not been clearly established, but the triggering of events is likely to be the result of multiple natural processes. Abrupt climate changes of the magnitude seen in the past would have far-reaching implications for human society and ecosystems, including major impacts on energy consumption and water supply demands. Could such a change happen again? Are human activities exacerbating the likelihood of abrupt climate change? What are the potential societal consequences of such a change? Abrupt Climate Change: Inevitable Surprises looks at the current scientific evidence and theoretical understanding to describe what is currently known about abrupt climate change, including patterns and magnitudes, mechanisms, and probability of occurrence. It identifies critical knowledge gaps concerning the potential for future abrupt changes, including those aspects of change most important to society and economies, and outlines a research strategy to close those gaps. Based on the best and most current research available, this book surveys the history of climate change and makes a series of specific recommendations for the future.

Climate Variability and Change in High Elevation Regions: Past, Present & Future

Climate Variability and Change in High Elevation Regions: Past, Present & Future
  • Author : Henry F. Diaz
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2003-07-31
  • Total pages : 294
  • ISBN : 1402013868
  • File Size : 10,5 Mb
  • Total Download : 671
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Glaciers in the Andes are particularly important natural archives of present and past climatic and environmental changes, in significant part because of the N-S trend of this topographic barrier and its influence on the atmospheric circulation of the southern hemisphere. Strong gradients in the seasonality and amount of precipitation exist between the equator and 30° S. Large differences in amount east and west of the Andean divide also occur, as well as a change from tropical summer precipitation (additionally modified by the seasonal shift of the circulation belts) to winter precipitation in the west wind belt (e. g. , Yuille, 1999; Garraud and Aceituno, 2001). The so-called 'dry axis' lies between the tropical and extra tropical precipitation regimes (Figure 1). The high mountain desert within this axis responds most sensitively to the smallest changes in effective moisture. An important hydro-meteorological feature on a seasonal to inter-annual time-scale is the occurrence of EN SO events, which strongly control the mass balance of glaciers in this area (e. g. , Wagnon et ai. , 2001; Francou et ai. , in press). The precipitation pattern is an important factor for the interpretation of climatic and environmental records extracted from ice cores, because much of this information is related to conditions at the actual time of precipitation, and this is especially so for stable isotope records. Several ice cores have recently been drilled to bedrock in this area. From Huascanin (Thompson et ai. , 1995), Sajama (Thompson et ai.

Climate change

Climate change
  • Author : Collectif
  • Publisher : IRD Éditions
  • Release Date : 2020-11-26
  • Total pages : 272
  • ISBN : 9782709921732
  • File Size : 14,9 Mb
  • Total Download : 592
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The mobilisation centred on the 2015 Paris Climate Conference (COP 21) is an opportunity to highlight the vulnerability of environments and populations in the South in the face of climate warming. Some tropical regions are already suffering from its effects, with heat waves in the Sahel, disturbances to monsoon systems, the melting of the Andean glaciers, threats to biodiversity, a rise in sea level and other features. Research conducted by IRD and its partners provides key knowledge for better understanding of the complexity of these phenomena. This book is a synthesis in three parts: observing and understanding climate change, analysing its main impacts on environments and setting societies and national public policies at the heart of the climate challenge. Focused on the capacity for resilience of populations and ecosystems in the face of trends in the climate, the book explores solutions that reconcile mitigation and adaptation in response to climate change, conservation of the environment and a reduction of inequalities. The work is both well documented and explanatory, reviewing operations and the results of research that is firmly involved and interdisciplinary, closely associating partners in the North and the South.

Lightning in the Tropics

Lightning in the Tropics
  • Author : Osmar Pinto
  • Publisher : Nova Science Pub Incorporated
  • Release Date : 2009
  • Total pages : 109
  • ISBN : STANFORD:36105215493649
  • File Size : 14,9 Mb
  • Total Download : 642
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Most lightning on Earth occurs in the tropical region, mainly in the central portion of the African Continent, in the Amazon region in South America and in Indonesia. Despite this fact, no book about tropical lightning is currently available. There is also no book about the relation between global warming and tropical lightning. Although this relationship is not very well understood at the present time, it has been considered by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) community as extremely important in the study of global warming. The reason for this is that lightning can contribute through feedback mechanisms to global warming. The purpose of the present book is to review the current knowledge about lightning in the tropical region, trying to compare observations made at different times and places and with different techniques, and indicate how this knowledge can be used to investigate and predict future impacts of global warming on Earth.

Advancing the Science of Climate Change

Advancing the Science of Climate Change
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate,America's Climate Choices: Panel on Advancing the Science of Climate Change
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release Date : 2011-01-10
  • Total pages : 526
  • ISBN : 9780309145886
  • File Size : 55,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 133
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Climate change is occurring, is caused largely by human activities, and poses significant risks for-and in many cases is already affecting-a broad range of human and natural systems. The compelling case for these conclusions is provided in Advancing the Science of Climate Change, part of a congressionally requested suite of studies known as America's Climate Choices. While noting that there is always more to learn and that the scientific process is never closed, the book shows that hypotheses about climate change are supported by multiple lines of evidence and have stood firm in the face of serious debate and careful evaluation of alternative explanations. As decision makers respond to these risks, the nation's scientific enterprise can contribute through research that improves understanding of the causes and consequences of climate change and also is useful to decision makers at the local, regional, national, and international levels. The book identifies decisions being made in 12 sectors, ranging from agriculture to transportation, to identify decisions being made in response to climate change. Advancing the Science of Climate Change calls for a single federal entity or program to coordinate a national, multidisciplinary research effort aimed at improving both understanding and responses to climate change. Seven cross-cutting research themes are identified to support this scientific enterprise. In addition, leaders of federal climate research should redouble efforts to deploy a comprehensive climate observing system, improve climate models and other analytical tools, invest in human capital, and improve linkages between research and decisions by forming partnerships with action-oriented programs.