Pharmaceuticals And Personal Care Products

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Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products: Waste Management and Treatment Technology

Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products: Waste Management and Treatment Technology
  • Author : Majeti Narasimha Vara Prasad,Meththika Vithanage,Atya Kapley
  • Publisher : Butterworth-Heinemann
  • Release Date : 2019-04-04
  • Total pages : 506
  • ISBN : 9780128165904
  • File Size : 45,9 Mb
  • Total Download : 153
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Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products Waste Management and Treatment Technology: Emerging Contaminants and Micro Pollutants provides the tools and techniques for identifying these contaminates and applying the most effective technology for their remediation, recovery and treatment. The consumption of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) has grown significantly over the last 35 years, thus increasing their potential risk to the environment. As PPCPs are very difficult to detect and remove using conventional wastewater treatment methods, this book provides solutions to a growing problem. Includes sampling, analytical and characterization methods and technology for detecting PPCPs in the environment Provides advanced treatment and disposal technologies for the removal of PPCPs from wastewater, surface water, landfills and septic systems Examines the pathways of PPCPs into the environment

Emerging Freshwater Pollutants

Emerging Freshwater Pollutants
  • Author : Tatenda Dalu,Nikita Tavengwa
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2022-02-01
  • Total pages : 408
  • ISBN : 9780323903158
  • File Size : 53,9 Mb
  • Total Download : 400
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Emerging Freshwater Pollutants: Analysis, Fate and Regulations comprises of 20 chapters, all written by leading experts. This book is written in the most practical terms and is easy to understand, with numerous helpful examples and case studies and can be used as a practical guide and important educational tool on issues concerning freshwater emerging pollutants. The organisation of the book exposes the reader in logical succession to the full range of complex scientific and management aspects of emerging freshwater pollutants in the developing world. The book recognises that water chemistry, emerging freshwater pollutants and management are inter-dependent disciplines. The book covers (i) the different monitoring techniques, current analytical approaches and instrumental analyses, (ii) fate and occurrence of emerging pollutants in aquatic systems and (iii) management policies and legislations on emerging pollutants. Thus, subsequent chapters elucidate chemicals with pollution potential, multi-detection approaches to analysis of organic pollutants in water, microplastics effects and photochemical transformation of emerging pollutants in freshwater systems. Whereas, other chapters address oxidation of organic compounds in aquatic systems, biomonitoring systems for detection of toxic levels of water pollutants, and health aspects of water recycling practices. This book melds several different perspectives on the subject of freshwater emerging pollutants and shows the interrelationships between the various professions that deal with water quality issues. Further, within the presentation of each separate chapter is discussion of how the various scientific and management aspects of the subject interrelate. Includes case studies and practical examples in each chapter Presents a much-needed interdisciplinary approach, representing the overlap between water chemistry and emerging freshwater pollutants Provides a thorough introduction to emerging tropical and freshwater pollutants that typically occur in these systems

Pharma-Ecology

Pharma-Ecology
  • Author : Patrick K. Jjemba
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release Date : 2018-11-13
  • Total pages : 416
  • ISBN : 9781119312284
  • File Size : 20,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 192
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The revised edition of the guide to environmental impact of pharmaceuticals and personal care products The revised and updated second edition of Pharma-Ecology joins the health and environmental sciences professions' concern over the occurrence and fate of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment and explores how to best minimize their impact. The text highlights the biological effects of various classes of pharmaceutical compounds under clinical settings, their modes of action, and approximate quantities consumed. The second edition contains the most recent knowledge about the ecological impact of PPCPs as more sensitive detection techniques have become available, since the book was first published. The second edition offers the most up-to-date information on pharma ecology and bridges the gap between medicine, public health, and environmental science. This new edition contains helpful learning objectives for each chapter, as well as a brief section at the end of each chapter that presents a set of open ended questions. This vital resource: • Explores the biological effects of pharmaceutical compounds under clinical settings, their modes of action, approximate quantities consumed • Provides researchers and scientists with critical background data on the environmental impacts of PPCPs • Contains the most current information on PPCPs' ecological impacts, based on new detection techniques • Bridges the gap between medicine, public health, and environmental science Written for ecologists, engineers, microbiologists, pharmacists, toxicologists, chemists, physicians, and veterinarians involved in pollution and environmental analysis, the second edition of Pharma-Ecology contains the most current information available on the environmental impact of pharmaceuticals and personal care products.

Pharmaceuticals in the Environment

Pharmaceuticals in the Environment
  • Author : Klaus Kümmerer
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2008-10-10
  • Total pages : 521
  • ISBN : 9783540746645
  • File Size : 16,6 Mb
  • Total Download : 153
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Following the success of the first edition, this pioneering study of pharmaceuticals in the environment has been updated and greatly extended. It includes the status of research on pharmaceuticals in soil, with attention to terrestrial and aquatic environments as well as new substance categories such as tetracylines and chinolones and the latest results concerning contamination of the environment and risk reduction.

Human Pharmaceuticals, Hormones and Fragrances

Human Pharmaceuticals, Hormones and Fragrances
  • Author : Thomas Ternes,Adriano Joss
  • Publisher : IWA Publishing
  • Release Date : 2007-01-30
  • Total pages : 475
  • ISBN : 9781843390930
  • File Size : 55,5 Mb
  • Total Download : 500
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The observed concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in raw wastewater confirm that municipal wastewater represents the main disposal pathway for the PPCPs consumed in households, hospitals and industry. In sewage treatment plant effluents most PPCPs are still present, since many of these polar and persistent compounds are being removed only partially or, in some cases, not at all. Treated wastewater therefore represents an important point source for PPCPs into the environment. After passing a sewage treatment plant the treated wastewater is mostly discharged into rivers and streams or sometimes used to irrigate fields. If drinking water is produced using resources containing a substantial proportion of treated wastewater (e.g. from river water downstream of communities) the water cycle is closed and indirect potable reuse occurs. Human Pharmaceuticals, Hormones and Fragrances provides an overview of the occurrence, analytics, removal and environmental risk of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in wastewater, surface water and drinking water. The book covers all aspects of the fate and removal of PPCPs in the whole water cycle: consumption and occurrence, analytical methods, the legal background, environmental risk assessment, human and animal toxicology, source control options, wastewater and drinking water treatment as well as indirect reuse. The book presents a summary of the results obtained during the EU project "Poseidon", combined with further expert knowledge on the field, and is written at a level appropriate for professionals involved in management of water resource quality. Professionals in the field including decision makers, engineers and scientists, as well as students entering the field, will find this an invaluable source of information. First comprehensive study on the assessment, fate and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in wastewater and drinking water treatment. Emphasises the importance of micropollutants in the water cycle, provides methods for quantifying their fate and technologies for their removal.

Personal Care Products in the Aquatic Environment

Personal Care Products in the Aquatic Environment
  • Author : M. Silvia Díaz‐Cruz,Damià Barceló
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2015-08-10
  • Total pages : 413
  • ISBN : 9783319188096
  • File Size : 20,5 Mb
  • Total Download : 323
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This volume offers an overview of the occurrence and distribution of personal care products in continental and marine waters, presents analytical methods and degradation technologies and discusses their impact on human health. Experts from different disciplines highlight major issues for each family of compounds related to their occurrence in the water column as well as in solid and biota samples, methodological strategies for their analysis, non-conventional degradation technologies, (eco)toxicity data and their human and environmental risk assessment. The book also includes a general introduction to personal care products, covering their properties, use, behaviour and regulatory framework, and a final chapter identifying knowledge gaps and future research trends. It will appeal to experts from various fields of research, including analytical and environmental chemistry, toxicology and environmental engineering.

Contaminants in Drinking and Wastewater Sources

Contaminants in Drinking and Wastewater Sources
  • Author : Manish Kumar,Daniel D. Snow,Ryo Honda,Santanu Mukherjee
  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release Date : 2020-06-29
  • Total pages : 436
  • ISBN : 9789811545993
  • File Size : 29,9 Mb
  • Total Download : 503
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This volume takes a multidisciplinary approach to study and evaluate the global human vulnerability to the exposure of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in the natural environment. It provides a comprehensive resource on structurally diverse groups of chemical compounds that have adverse effects on the aquatic environment. It explores the global strength, environmental status, chemical risk assessment and management strategies of CECs with relevant modern techniques. The principle focus is on concurrent emerging water quality issues. It defines the impacts of the environmental exposure of trace concentrations of CECs and/or their metabolites and discusses possible technological advances to combat the emerging pollutants. It will be useful to researchers, multi-stakeholder expert groups, policymakers, and graduate students.

Water and Sanitation-Related Diseases and the Changing Environment

Water and Sanitation-Related Diseases and the Changing Environment
  • Author : Janine M. H. Selendy
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release Date : 2019-02-06
  • Total pages : 360
  • ISBN : 9781119416210
  • File Size : 48,5 Mb
  • Total Download : 653
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The revised and updated second edition of Water and Sanitation Related Diseases and the Changing Environment offers an interdisciplinary guide to the conditions responsible for water and sanitation related diseases. The authors discuss the pathogens, vectors, and their biology, morbidity and mortality that result from a lack of safe water and sanitation. The text also explores the distribution of these diseases and the conditions that must be met to reduce or eradicate them. The text includes contributions from authorities from the fields of climate change, epidemiology, environmental health, environmental engineering, global health, medicine, medical anthropology, nutrition, population, and public health. Covers the causes of individual diseases with basic information about the diseases and data on the distribution, prevalence, and incidence as well as interconnected factors such as environmental factors. The authors cover access to and maintenance of clean water, and guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta, and grey water, plus examples of solutions. Written for students, and professionals in infectious disease, public health and medicine, chemical and environmental engineering, and international affairs, the second edition of Water and Sanitation Related Diseases and the Changing Environment isa comprehensive resource to the conditions responsible for water and sanitation related diseases.

Emerging Contaminants in Soil and Groundwater Systems

Emerging Contaminants in Soil and Groundwater Systems
  • Author : Bin Gao
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2022-01-16
  • Total pages : 354
  • ISBN : 9780128240892
  • File Size : 54,7 Mb
  • Total Download : 777
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Emerging Contaminants in Soil and Groundwater Systems: Occurrence, Impact, Fate and Transport addresses the current need for comprehensive and detailed information on emerging contaminants in the environment. Due to increasing industrial expansion and evolving technologies, novel contaminants are being found in the environment with little information on their analysis, fate and transport. This book covers pharmaceuticals and personal care products, perfluorinated compounds, engineered nanoparticles and microplastics, providing the information environmental scientists require to study their occurrence and interactions, including case studies for each contaminant. This book is a valuable read for postgraduate students, academics, researchers, engineers and other professionals in the fields of Environmental Science, Soil Science, and Hydrology who need the most up-to-date information and analytical methods for analyzing newly emerging contaminants in soil and groundwater. Presents the four most important emerging contaminants of concern that have had little comprehensive coverage to date: pharmaceuticals and personal care products, perfluorinated compounds, engineered nanoparticles and microplastics Focuses on the fate and transport of each emerging contaminant, providing a thorough description of how each contaminant interacts with the environment Includes case studies of each emerging contaminant to complement advances in research to form a comprehensive reference for all emerging contaminants

Pharmaceutical Residues in the Environment

Pharmaceutical Residues in the Environment
  • Author : Jolanta Kumirska
  • Publisher : MDPI
  • Release Date : 2020-11-18
  • Total pages : 292
  • ISBN : 9783039434855
  • File Size : 41,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 146
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Pharmaceuticals, due to their pseudo-persistence and biological activity as well as their extensive use in human and veterinary medicine, are a class of environmental contaminants that is of emerging concern. In contrast to some conventional pollutants, they are continuously delivered at low levels, which might give rise to toxicity even without high persistence rates. These chemicals are designed to have a specific physiological mode of action and to resist frequently inactivation before exerting their intended therapeutic effect. These features, among others, result in the bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals which are responsible for toxic effects in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. It is extremely important to know how to remove them from the environment and/or how to implement procedures or treatments resulting in their biological inactivation. Although great advances have been made in their detection in aquatic matrices, there remains limited analytical methodologies available for the trace analysis of target and non-target pharmaceuticals in matrices such as soils, sediments, or biota. There are still many gaps in the data on their fate and behavior in the environment as well as on their threats to ecological and human health. This book has included nine current research and three review articles in this field.

Environmental Exposures and Human Health Challenges

Environmental Exposures and Human Health Challenges
  • Author : Papadopoulou, Paraskevi,Marouli, Christina,Misseyanni, Anastasia
  • Publisher : IGI Global
  • Release Date : 2019-03-15
  • Total pages : 449
  • ISBN : 9781522576365
  • File Size : 18,5 Mb
  • Total Download : 654
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Environmental health is an area with significant developments and noteworthy challenges that expand into various disciplines: medicine and public health, sociology and communications, technology, policymaking, and legislation. Due to the massive amount of health-related issues, additional literature involving environmental health is required to improve the wellbeing of citizens worldwide. Environmental Exposures and Human Health Challenges provides interdisciplinary insights into concepts and theories related to environmental exposures and human health impacts via the air, water, soil, heavy metal exposure, and other chemical toxins. The book also addresses inequalities and environmental injustices in relation to environmental exposures and health impacts. Covering topics such as health policies, pollution effects, and heavy metal exposure, this publication is designed for public health professionals, preventive medicine specialists, clinicians, data scientists, environmentalists, academicians, practitioners, researchers, and students.

Packaging of Pharmaceuticals and Healthcare Products

Packaging of Pharmaceuticals and Healthcare Products
  • Author : Frank A. Paine,H. Lockhart
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2012-12-06
  • Total pages : 211
  • ISBN : 9781461521259
  • File Size : 27,7 Mb
  • Total Download : 253
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As was the case with Charles Ross's Packaging of Pharmaceuticals published by the UK Institute of Packaging in 1975 it is assumed that the reader of this book already has a broad understanding of the basics of packaging. If not the Packaging Users Handbook and the Handbook of Food Packaging are recommended. The packaging needs of pharmaceuticals are different in degree only from those of other perishable products such as processed foods. Because the required action of a medication can be nullified by any deterioration in its active principles the protection required from its packaging is at least an order of magnitude greater than that needed by foods for example. Functional efficiency is therefore of prime importance. Conversely the need for the packaging to 'sell' the medication is much less, hence the graphics required need only provide the right 'image' for the product when presented for use in hospital or surgery. Even when on sale at the pharmacy the 'appeal' required is that of providing hygiene and confidence more than anything else. Thus, the textual requirements are paramount including traceability (batch numbers, date-coding etc) in case of recall; while striking appearance to attract customer attention is in lower key. And with the increase in malicious tampering nowadays recall is more frequent.

Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in the Environment

Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in the Environment
  • Author : Christian Gaaei Daughton
  • Publisher : Amer Chemical Society
  • Release Date : 2001
  • Total pages : 424
  • ISBN : UOM:39015050796211
  • File Size : 44,5 Mb
  • Total Download : 297
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This volume breaks new ground in applying the current body of knowledge in the study of pharmaceuticals, personal care products and their environmental impact to the assessment of the magnitude and extent of the use of illicit drugs at the local community level. It offers new insights on the use of environmental monitoring and includes discussion on waste treatment, ecotoxicological issues, and risk assessment.

Waste Management: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications

Waste Management: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications
  • Author : Management Association, Information Resources
  • Publisher : IGI Global
  • Release Date : 2019-12-06
  • Total pages : 1680
  • ISBN : 9781799812111
  • File Size : 22,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 909
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As the world’s population continues to grow and economic conditions continue to improve, more solid and liquid waste is being generated by society. Improper disposal methods can not only lead to harmful environmental impacts but can also negatively affect human health. To prevent further harm to the world’s ecosystems, there is a dire need for sustainable waste management practices that will safeguard the environment for future generations. Waste Management: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications is a vital reference source that examines the management of different types of wastes and provides relevant theoretical frameworks about new waste management technologies for the control of air, water, and soil pollution. Highlighting a range of topics such as contaminant removal, landfill treatment, and recycling, this multi-volume book is ideally designed for environmental engineers, waste authorities, solid waste management companies, landfill operators, legislators, environmentalists, policymakers, government officials, academicians, researchers, and students.

The Future of Effluent Treatment Plants

The Future of Effluent Treatment Plants
  • Author : Maulin P. Shah,Susana Rodriguez-Couto,Kavit Mehta
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2021-05-24
  • Total pages : 804
  • ISBN : 9780128231043
  • File Size : 32,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 307
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The Future of Effluent Treatment Plants: Biological Treatment Systems is an advanced and updated version of existing biological technologies that includes their limitations, challenges, and potential application to remove chemical oxygen demand (COD), refractory chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), color removal and environmental pollutants through advancements in microbial bioremediation. The book introduces new trends and advances in environmental bioremediation with thorough discussions of recent developments. In addition, it illustrates that the application of these new emerging innovative technologies can lead to energy savings and resource recovery. The importance of respiration, nitrogen mineralization, nitrification, denitrification and biological phosphorus removal processes in the development of a fruitful and applicable solution for the removal of toxic pollutants from wastewater treatment plants is highlighted. Equally important is the knowledge and theoretical modeling of water movement through wastewater ecosystems. Finally, emphasis is given to the function of constructed wetlands and activated sludge processes. Considers different types of industrial wastewater Focuses on biological wastewater treatments Introduces new trends in bioremediation Addresses the future of WWTPs

Ecotoxicology

Ecotoxicology
  • Author : Rachel Ann Hauser-Davis,Thiago Estevam Parente
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2018-05-15
  • Total pages : 554
  • ISBN : 9781315296357
  • File Size : 32,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 208
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This book presents an integrated discussion on ecotoxicology, containing both general concepts and specific ecotoxicological issues of major biological groups, extending beyond conventional systems. It explores worldwide, regional, and biocompartmentalized topics, bringing forth new points of view on global issues and addressing the increasing diversity and complexity of the ecotoxicological field. It also contains novel information on emerging contaminants, presents bioaccumulation effects on different levels of ecological organization and risk analyses, and discusses novel fields of methodological applications, including key aspects in ecotoxicological and environmental monitoring studies.

Membranes for Environmental Applications

Membranes for Environmental Applications
  • Author : Zhien Zhang,Wenxiang Zhang,Eric Lichtfouse
  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release Date : 2020-02-29
  • Total pages : 520
  • ISBN : 9783030339784
  • File Size : 44,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 655
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This book introduces recent developments of membrane technologies applied to gas and water treatments, energy processes and environmental issues. Novel knowledge and mechanisms on membrane fabrication and usage in energy, chemical, and environmental engineering are detailed in 12 book chapters from France, UK, Spain, China, Nigeria, Iran and Pakistan. The information in this book will be useful for engineers, students, and experts in these fields.

Fate and Transport of Subsurface Pollutants

Fate and Transport of Subsurface Pollutants
  • Author : Pankaj Kumar Gupta,Ram Naresh Bharagava
  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release Date : 2020-10-20
  • Total pages : 341
  • ISBN : 9789811565649
  • File Size : 34,7 Mb
  • Total Download : 216
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This volume offers detailed information on the behaviour of various water pollutants, and on the principles and concepts of groundwater flow and transport. It will help readers to understand and execute the planning, supervision, and review of solute transport and groundwater modeling projects. The book also discusses the role and fate of elements that have been identified as major contaminants in surface and subsurface waters, and their adverse effects on ecology and human health. The book explores this theme throughout four sections – a. Understanding Soil-Water Systems, b. Fate and Transport of Pollutants, c. Physico-Chemical Treatment of Wastewater and d. Microbial Techniques Used to Decontaminate Soil-Water Systems. Introducing readers to a range of recent advances concerning the fundamentals of subsurface water treatment, it offers a valuable guide for teachers, researchers, policymakers, and undergraduate and graduate students of hydrology, environmental microbiology, biotechnology and the environmental sciences. It also provides field engineers and industrial practitioners with essential support in the effective remediation and management of polluted sites.

Pollutants, Human Health and the Environment

Pollutants, Human Health and the Environment
  • Author : Jane A. Plant,Nick Voulvoulis,K. Vala Ragnarsdottir
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release Date : 2012-02-08
  • Total pages : 400
  • ISBN : 9781119951063
  • File Size : 29,9 Mb
  • Total Download : 701
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Pollutants, Human Health and the Environment is a comprehensive, up-to-date overview of environmental pollutants that are of current concern to human health. Clearly structured throughout, the main body of the book is divided by pollutant type with a chapter devoted to each group of pollutants. Each chapter follows a similar format to facilitate comparison and discussion. For each pollutant, the authors describe the sources, pathways, environmental fate and sinks as well as known toxicological effects. Importantly, the second chapter on heavy metals and other inorganic substances deals with trace element deficiencies which can have serious problems for human health. Some rocks and soils are naturally low in some trace elements and intensive agriculture over the past half century has effectively mined many trace elements reducing their levels in soils and crops. The final chapter is a discussion about the various risk assessment frameworks and regulations covering the main pollutants. Comprehensive, up-to-date coverage of environmental pollutants of concern to human health Clearly divided into pollutant type with each chapter devoted to a different pollutant group Clearly structured throughout with the same format for each chapter to help facilitate comparison and discussion and enable readers to prioritise chemicals of concern Description of the sources, pathways, environmental fate and known toxicological effect Includes contributions from leading researchers and edited by a team of experts in the field

Methods for measuring the acute toxicity of effluents and receiving waters to freshwater and marine organisms

Methods for measuring the acute toxicity of effluents and receiving waters to freshwater and marine organisms
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher : DIANE Publishing
  • Release Date : 2023
  • Total pages : 229
  • ISBN : 9781428904040
  • File Size : 19,7 Mb
  • Total Download : 594
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PDF book entitled Methods for measuring the acute toxicity of effluents and receiving waters to freshwater and marine organisms written by Anonim and published by DIANE Publishing which was released on 2023 with total hardcover pages 229, the book become popular and critical acclaim.

Fate of Pharmaceuticals in the Environment and in Water Treatment Systems

Fate of Pharmaceuticals in the Environment and in Water Treatment Systems
  • Author : Diana S. Aga
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2007-12-26
  • Total pages : 408
  • ISBN : 1420052330
  • File Size : 18,9 Mb
  • Total Download : 810
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The detection of pharmaceutical residues remained elusive until instruments such as liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry became commonplace in environmental laboratories. The documentation of the occurrence of pharmaceutical residues and endocrine disrupting chemicals in water resources has raused questions about their long-term effects in the ecosystem and their potential effects on human health. Fate of Pharmaceuticals in the Environment and in Water Treatment Systems covers critical issues regarding the occurrence, persistence, treatment, and transformations of pharmaceuticals in the environment and in drinking water and wastewater treatment systems. Acompilation of the recent literature, the book reviews advances in instrumentation and sample preparation techniques and includes an example of how risk assessment is conducted to investigate the fate and effects of pharmaceutical contaminants. Several chapters explore the behavior of pharmaceuticals in soil and the potential side effects of antibiotics on plants after uptake. Experts in drinking water and wastewater treatment systems present new findings on the effectiveness of current treatment practices to reduce the concentrations of pharmaceuticals at the source, providing new insights on how to better mitigate future problems brought about by emerging environmental contaminants. Contributing authors from academia, government, and industry provide a well-balanced multi-disciplinary perspective on the issues, discussing topics ranging from field studies documenting the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in environmental compartments, to laboratory studies determining the degradation kinetics and formation of by-products during treatment. The text discusses the factors that affect the environmental fate of pharmaceuticals in soil and water, facilitate the development of best management practices, and optimize treatment systems for removal of these compounds from the environment.