Noninvasive Prenatal Testing

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Noninvasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT)

Noninvasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT)
  • Author : Lieve Page-Christiaens,Hanns-Georg Klein
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2018-08-19
  • Total pages : 405
  • ISBN : 9780128141908
  • File Size : 38,7 Mb
  • Total Download : 946
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Since its introduction in 2012, cell-free (cf) DNA based Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT) has been employed to test for fetal chromosome abnormalities, and gene mutations that lead to a variety of genetic conditions, by millions of pregnant women, in more than 90 countries worldwide. With Noninvasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT): Applied Genomics in Prenatal Screening and Diagnosis, Dr Lieve Page-Christiaens and Dr Hanns-Georg Klein have compiled the first authoritative volume on cfDNA NIPT methods and their clinical implementation. Provides a thorough, practical examination of the history of NIPT, NIPT laboratory techniques and bioinformatics, NIPT screening and diagnostics for a wide range of disorders and birth defects Presents leading, international experts who discuss the application of NIPT in early screening for common aneuploidies, fetal chromosome anomalies, autosomal trisomies, fetal blood group typing, and maternal constitutional and acquired copy number variants Includes full color imagery that enhances concept illustration, along with detailed descriptions of the benefits (and limitations) of NIPT Offers clinicians, researchers, genetic counselors and reproductive specialists of all kinds the required background information, methodologies and essential patient counseling techniques

Screening for Down's Syndrome

Screening for Down's Syndrome
  • Author : J. G. Grudzinskas,T. Chard,M. Chapman,H. Cuckle
  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release Date : 1994-11-17
  • Total pages : 364
  • ISBN : 0521452716
  • File Size : 45,9 Mb
  • Total Download : 994
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This important new publication summarises the recent exciting advances in screening for Down's syndrome. It addresses important clinical questions such as: risk assessment, who to screen, when to screen, which techniques to use, and the organisation of screening programmes nationally and internationally. An international and authoritative team of authors has been invited to assess the latest developments in this rapidly advancing area. The volume provides a critical and much needed evaluation of the potential and limitations of new and established techniques for screening for Down's syndrome. It will serve as an essential source of information for all those involved in pre-natal diagnosis and the provision of obstetric care.

Noninvasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT)

Noninvasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT)
  • Author : Lieve Page-Christiaens,Hanns-Georg Klein
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2018-08
  • Total pages : 400
  • ISBN : 0128141891
  • File Size : 13,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 464
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Since its introduction in 2012, cell-free (cf) DNA based Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT) has been employed to test for fetal chromosome abnormalities, and gene mutations that lead to a variety of genetic conditions, by millions of pregnant women, in more than 90 countries worldwide. With Noninvasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT): Applied Genomics in Prenatal Screening and Diagnosis, Dr Lieve Page-Christiaens and Dr Hanns-Georg Klein have compiled the first authoritative volume on cfDNA NIPT methods and their clinical implementation. Provides a thorough, practical examination of the history of NIPT, NIPT laboratory techniques and bioinformatics, NIPT screening and diagnostics for a wide range of disorders and birth defects Presents leading, international experts who discuss the application of NIPT in early screening for common aneuploidies, fetal chromosome anomalies, autosomal trisomies, fetal blood group typing, and maternal constitutional and acquired copy number variants Includes full color imagery that enhances concept illustration, along with detailed descriptions of the benefits (and limitations) of NIPT Offers clinicians, researchers, genetic counselors and reproductive specialists of all kinds the required background information, methodologies and essential patient counseling techniques

Understanding Genetics

Understanding Genetics
  • Author : Genetic Alliance,New York-Mid-Atlantic Consortium for Genetic and Newborn Screening Services
  • Publisher : Lulu.com
  • Release Date : 2009
  • Total pages : 104
  • ISBN : 9780982162217
  • File Size : 46,9 Mb
  • Total Download : 373
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The purpose of this manual is to provide an educational genetics resource for individuals, families, and health professionals in the New York - Mid-Atlantic region and increase awareness of specialty care in genetics. The manual begins with a basic introduction to genetics concepts, followed by a description of the different types and applications of genetic tests. It also provides information about diagnosis of genetic disease, family history, newborn screening, and genetic counseling. Resources are included to assist in patient care, patient and professional education, and identification of specialty genetics services within the New York - Mid-Atlantic region. At the end of each section, a list of references is provided for additional information. Appendices can be copied for reference and offered to patients. These take-home resources are critical to helping both providers and patients understand some of the basic concepts and applications of genetics and genomics.

Clinical Ethics at the Crossroads of Genetic and Reproductive Technologies

Clinical Ethics at the Crossroads of Genetic and Reproductive Technologies
  • Author : Sorin Hostiuc
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2018-08-07
  • Total pages : 431
  • ISBN : 9780128137659
  • File Size : 47,6 Mb
  • Total Download : 705
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Clinical Ethics at the Crossroads of Genetic and Reproductive Technologies offers thorough discussions on preconception carrier screening, genetic engineering and the use of CRISPR gene editing, mitochondrial gene replacement therapy, sex selection, predictive testing, secondary findings, embryo reduction and the moral status of the embryo, genetic enhancement, and the sharing of genetic data. Chapter contributions from leading bioethicists and clinicians encourage a global, holistic perspective on applied challenges and the moral questions relating the implementation of genetic reproductive technology. The book is an ideal resource for practitioners, regulators, lawmakers, clinical researchers, genetic counselors and graduate and medical students. As the Human Genome Project has triggered a technological revolution that has influenced nearly every field of medicine, including reproductive medicine, obstetrics, gynecology, andrology, prenatal genetic testing, and gene therapy, this book presents a timely resource. Provides practical analysis of the ethical issues raised by cutting-edge techniques and recent advances in prenatal and reproductive genetics Contains contributions from leading bioethicists and clinicians who offer a global, holistic perspective on applied challenges and moral questions relating to genetic and genomic reproductive technology Discusses preconception carrier screening, genetic engineering and the use of CRISPR gene editing, mitochondrial gene replacement therapy, ethical issues, and more

Clinical Genetics Handbook

Clinical Genetics Handbook
  • Author : Arthur Robinson,Mary G. Linden
  • Publisher : Wiley-Blackwell
  • Release Date : 1993
  • Total pages : 614
  • ISBN : 0865421943
  • File Size : 40,5 Mb
  • Total Download : 169
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Covers genetic disorders most likely to be of interest to primary-care physicians.

Prenatal Diagnosis and Screening

Prenatal Diagnosis and Screening
  • Author : D. J. H. Brock,C. H. Rodeck,Malcolm Andrew Ferguson-Smith
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 1992
  • Total pages : 785
  • ISBN : UOM:39015029198432
  • File Size : 27,6 Mb
  • Total Download : 464
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Prenatal diagnosis is the most important and fast moving area in obstetrics. This important new title is intended to become the definitive international book on the subject. Features: * Strong editorial team - offering a combination of geneticist and obstetrician * Both editors are of renowned international standing * Expert contributors from the UK, USA, Europe and Australia * Final chapter will summarise the major developments in the field - cross-referenced to and from the relevant chapters * Current, in-depth coverage of prenatal diagnosis

Ghost Children

Ghost Children
  • Author : Sue Townsend
  • Publisher : Penguin UK
  • Release Date : 2003-05-01
  • Total pages : 272
  • ISBN : 9780141962450
  • File Size : 53,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 509
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Ghost Children is a compassionate and gritty examination of love and loss from one of Britain's most-loved writers, Sue Townsend How can she leave the past behind when he won't let her? Seventeen years ago Angela Carr aborted an unwanted child. The child's father, Christopher Moore, was devastated by the loss and he retreated from the world. Unable to accept what had happened between them both went their separate ways. However, when Christopher makes a horrifying discovery whilst out walking his dog on the heath he finds that he is compelled to confront Angela about the past. As they start seeing each another again can they avoid the mistakes of the past? And will their future together be eclipsed by those mistakes of yesterday? 'Gripping and disturbing. Utterly absorbing' Independent 'Bleak, tender and deeply affecting. Seldom have I rooted so hard for a set of fictional individuals' Mail on Sunday 'Leaves one gasping for more' Daily Telegraph 'Engrossing, memorable and moving' Guardian 'Startling and raw' Observer

Genetic Disorders and the Fetus

Genetic Disorders and the Fetus
  • Author : Aubrey Milunsky
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2012-12-06
  • Total pages : 924
  • ISBN : 9781468451559
  • File Size : 34,5 Mb
  • Total Download : 658
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About 21 years ago prenatal diagnosis became part of the physician's diagnostic armamentarium against genetic defects. My first monograph in 1973 (The Prenatal Diagnosis of Hereditary Disorders) critically assessed early progress and enunciated basic principles in the systematic approach to prenatal genetic diagnosis. Six years later and under the current title, a subsequent volume provided the first major reference source on this subject. The present second (effectively third) edition, which was urged in view of the excellent reception of the two earlier volumes, reflects the remarkable growth of this new discipline and points to significant and exciting future developments. Notwithstanding these advances, the use of the new tools and techniques for the benefit of at-risk parents has taken many more years than most anticipated. Key factors have been the lack of teaching of human genetics in medical schools in the preceding decades and the difficulty of educating practicing physicians in a new scientific disci pline. Even today the teaching of genetics in medical schools leaves much to be desired and this will further delay the introduction of newer genetic advances to the bedside.

Prenatal Diagnosis

Prenatal Diagnosis
  • Author : Brynn Levy
  • Publisher : Humana Press
  • Release Date : 2019-01-17
  • Total pages : 363
  • ISBN : 1493988875
  • File Size : 12,7 Mb
  • Total Download : 872
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This second edition volume expands on the first edition with more detailed methodologies on prenatal testing and diagnosis, and also covers next-generation sequencing techniques. The chapters in this book are divided into three sections: preimplantation genetic testing, traditional prenatal testing, and non-invasive prenatal testing. This book covers topics such as molecular testing for preimplantation genetic diagnosis of single gene disorders; DNA extraction from various types of prenatal specimens; prenatal diagnosis of cystic fibrosis and Tay-Sachs disease; chromosomal SNP microarrays; and isolation of cell-free DNA from maternal plasma. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Practical and thorough, Prenatal Diagnosis, Second Edition is a valuable resource for any researcher interested in reproducing these techniques in their clinical laboratories.

Reproductive Genetics

Reproductive Genetics
  • Author : Sean Kehoe,Lyn Chitty,Tessa Homfray
  • Publisher : RCOG
  • Release Date : 2009-11
  • Total pages : 245
  • ISBN : 9781906985165
  • File Size : 9,5 Mb
  • Total Download : 729
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This book presents the findings of the RCOG Study Group findings on genetics underlying reproductive function.

Human Reproductive and Prenatal Genetics

Human Reproductive and Prenatal Genetics
  • Author : Peter C. K. Leung,Jie Qiao
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2018-08-28
  • Total pages : 709
  • ISBN : 9780128135716
  • File Size : 27,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 390
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Human Reproductive and Prenatal Genetics presents the latest material from a detailed molecular, cellular and translational perspective. Considering its timeliness and potential international impact, this all-inclusive and authoritative work is ideal for researchers, students, and clinicians worldwide. Currently, there are no comprehensive books covering the field of human reproductive and prenatal genetics. As such, this book aims to be among the largest and most useful references available. Features chapter contributions from leading international scientists and clinicians Provides in-depth coverage of key topics in human reproductive and prenatal genetics, including genetic controls, fertilization and implantation, in vitro culture of the human embryo for the study of post-implantation development, and more Identifies how researchers and clinicians can implement the latest genetic, epigenetic, and –omics based approaches

Non-invasive Prenatal Testing

Non-invasive Prenatal Testing
  • Author : Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 2014
  • Total pages : 22
  • ISBN : OCLC:907021717
  • File Size : 27,9 Mb
  • Total Download : 438
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Recent advances in genomic sequencing and bioinformatics have led to development of noninvasive detection methods with detection rates approaching those obtained with amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS). Recently, a novel prenatal testing method has become available. This method, known as non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT), is a molecular approach for assessing fetal aneuploidy using cell-free fetal deoxyribonucleic acid (cffDNA) from the plasma of pregnant women. NIPT has a false positive rate of about 0.2% and detection rate of about 98% for Down syndrome. NIPT has been used for assessing abnormalities such as trisomy 21, trisomy 18, and trisomy 13. Approximately 10% to 15% of the cell free deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in maternal blood comprises of cffDNA. The half-life of cffDNA is short and clears from maternal circulation soon after delivery. Hence, there is no risk of fetal DNA persisting from one pregnancy to the next and confounding test results. The cost of NIPT ranges from US$800 to US$2000 in the USA and from US$500 to US$1500 elsewhere. A Canadian economic study reported a cost range of C$600 to C$800 for NIPT. Among other factors, cost implications for introducing this new technology in clinical practice will need to be considered. At present there is some uncertainty around the incorporation of NIPT into current strategies for prenatal screening and diagnosis. The purpose of this report is to provide information on the cost-effectiveness of non-invasive pre-natal testing and to describe evidence-based guidelines for its use.

Developmental and Fetal Origins of Differences in Monozygotic Twins

Developmental and Fetal Origins of Differences in Monozygotic Twins
  • Author : Alexandra Matias,Isaac Blickstein
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2020-05-15
  • Total pages : 386
  • ISBN : 9780128203071
  • File Size : 51,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 336
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Developmental and Fetal Origins of Differences in Monozygotic Twins: From Genetics to Environmental Factors examines the major causes of discordance in monozygotic twins, from genetic, to environmental influences, including discussions on the genetic, epigenetic, fetal and environmental factors. Twin differences discussed include malformations, deformations and disruptions secondary to inequitable division of the early embryo, chromosome and single gene mosaicism, Nonrandom X chromosome inactivation, mitochondrial heteroplasmy, epigenetic variation, and variable and inequitable blood supply, among other influences. Differences in hemoglobin levels, placentation and amniotic fluid are also examined, while full color images illustrate discordant anomalies and twin differences throughout. Examines the major causes of discordance in monozygotic twins and their relevance for future studies and clinical management Discusses NIPT in MZ twins, twin imaging during fetal development, blood tests and forensic analysis Features contributions from international experts in twin genetics and developmental biology

Next Generation Sequencing

Next Generation Sequencing
  • Author : Jerzy Kulski
  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release Date : 2016-01-14
  • Total pages : 466
  • ISBN : 9789535122401
  • File Size : 39,9 Mb
  • Total Download : 397
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Next generation sequencing (NGS) has surpassed the traditional Sanger sequencing method to become the main choice for large-scale, genome-wide sequencing studies with ultra-high-throughput production and a huge reduction in costs. The NGS technologies have had enormous impact on the studies of structural and functional genomics in all the life sciences. In this book, Next Generation Sequencing Advances, Applications and Challenges, the sixteen chapters written by experts cover various aspects of NGS including genomics, transcriptomics and methylomics, the sequencing platforms, and the bioinformatics challenges in processing and analysing huge amounts of sequencing data. Following an overview of the evolution of NGS in the brave new world of omics, the book examines the advances and challenges of NGS applications in basic and applied research on microorganisms, agricultural plants and humans. This book is of value to all who are interested in DNA sequencing and bioinformatics across all fields of the life sciences.

Clinical Management of Infertility

Clinical Management of Infertility
  • Author : Joseph G. Schenker,Andrea R. Genazzani,John J. Sciarra,Liselotte Mettler,Martin H. Birkhaeuser
  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release Date : 2021-08-01
  • Total pages : 334
  • ISBN : 9783030718381
  • File Size : 18,9 Mb
  • Total Download : 771
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This new volume in the Reproductive Medicine for Clinicians series focuses on the practical clinical impact of problems linked to infertility, discussing topics such as luteal support in ART cycles, ovulation induction using pulsatile administration of GnRH, how to deal with the metabolic changes in PCOS, treatment to restore fertility in endometriosis and how to improve implantation, which are common aspects of daily clinical practice. It also addresses significant novel areas like the biological clock in human reproduction, reproduction at advanced parental age and medical and social egg freezing, offering valuable insights for patients and their doctors. Further, the book covers various areas of growing importance, such as how to access the uterine cavity; the future of imaging in reproduction; non-invasive prenatal testing; ART and male infertility; as well as breast cancer and fertility preservation. Last but not least, it examines the medical, ethical and legal aspects of a number of challenges for current and future reproductive medicine, including uterine transplantation and human genetic modification. Bringing together updates on some of the most important problems in reproductive medicine and also covering ethical and legal bases, this book offers an overview of potential treatments for infertility. As such, it is a valuable resource for gynecologists, obstetricians, endocrinologists and all specialists dealing with reproductive health.

Prenatal Genetic Counseling

Prenatal Genetic Counseling
  • Author : Sam Riedijk,Karin E.M. Diderich
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2021-10-20
  • Total pages : 226
  • ISBN : 9780128233313
  • File Size : 19,9 Mb
  • Total Download : 677
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Prenatal Genetic Counseling: Practical Support for Prenatal Diagnostics, Decision-Making, and Dealing with Uncertainty provides a foundation for new research and a one-stop source for physicians, genetic counselors, psychologists, social workers, general practitioners, grief workers, translational researchers, and administrators seeking to work in the field of clinical genomics ethically and in full consideration of patients’ psychological well-being. Here, an international team of experienced counselors and clinician-scientists lay out the range of methods and technologies applied in prenatal decision-making, including NIPT; invasive testing with microarray analysis or whole genome sequencing; ultrasound screening; and prenatal diagnosis for known hereditary conditions, among others. From here, they examine specific challenges in the clinical translation. In a field where decisions about life or death of a child are made, professionals are bound to encounter uncertainty. This book was co-created by health care practitioners, scientists, patients and students to provide insights and direction for offering support straight from the heart to couples faced with fetal anomalies. To make this possible for all couples, diversity in prenatal genetic counseling is also addressed. Finally, next steps in prenatal genetic counseling research and clinical implementation are discussed. As we are challenged by the rapid advances in prenatal genomics, so are our patients. Learning from our patients with every encounter, this book aims to offer access to the insights we gathered as well as to stimulate lifelong learning. Features a range of international chapter authors addressing prenatal medicine from bench-to-bedside, including health care practitioners, scientists, patients and students. Covers use and psychological implications of technologies applied in prenatal decision-making, including NIPT, invasive testing with microarray analysis; exome sequencing; whole genome sequencing; and ultrasound screening and addresses diversity in prenatal genetic counseling Discusses next steps for prenatal genetic counseling research and common challenges in the clinic, with detailed case descriptions offering insights from the authors’ counseling experiences

Textbook of Assisted Reproduction

Textbook of Assisted Reproduction
  • Author : Gautam Nand Allahbadia,Baris Ata,Steven R. Lindheim,Bryan J. Woodward,Bala Bhagavath
  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release Date : 2020-08-05
  • Total pages : 846
  • ISBN : 9789811523779
  • File Size : 28,6 Mb
  • Total Download : 394
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Groundbreaking, comprehensive, and developed by a panel of leading international experts in the field, Textbook of Assisted Reproduction provides a multidisciplinary overview of the diagnosis and management of infertility, which affects 15% of all couples around the world. The book aims to cover all aspects of assisted reproduction. Particular attention is given to topics such as the assessment of infertile couples; assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs) including ovulation induction, intra uterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (clinical and laboratory aspects); reproductive genetics; and obstetric and perinatal outcomes.

Chorion Villus Sampling

Chorion Villus Sampling
  • Author : Mitchell S. Golbus,D. T. Y. Liu,E. M. Symonds
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2013-11-11
  • Total pages : 362
  • ISBN : 9781489933621
  • File Size : 11,7 Mb
  • Total Download : 540
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PDF book entitled Chorion Villus Sampling written by Mitchell S. Golbus,D. T. Y. Liu,E. M. Symonds and published by Springer which was released on 2013-11-11 with total hardcover pages 362, the book become popular and critical acclaim.

Technologies for Prenatal Diagnosis and Assessment of Genetic Disorders

Technologies for Prenatal Diagnosis and Assessment of Genetic Disorders
  • Author : Fan Jin,Yueqiu Tan,Evica Rajcan-Separovic,Peter C. K. Leung
  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release Date : 2020-06-22
  • Total pages : 117
  • ISBN : 9782889637393
  • File Size : 48,5 Mb
  • Total Download : 374
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Birth defects are one of the major public health concerns in the world, as they cause approximately 20% of infant deaths. Genetic disorders, including chromosome abnormalities and single gene disorders, are the most common causes of birth defects for which there is no efficient treatment. Prenatal genetic screening and diagnosis allow early identification of affected conceptuses and facilitates reproduction planning or counseling. Molecular technologies have developed rapidly in recent years and have been widely used in screening and diagnosis of genetic disorders at all stages of prenatal development (e.g. pre-implantation, embryonic and fetal). However, their performance still needs to be validated and assessed as the balance between their advantages and disadvantages need to be discussed. With the ability to detect copy number variations (CNVs), polyploidy, uniparental disomy and maternal cell contamination, SNP-based chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) is showing the unique importance in diagnosing chromosomal abnormalities. The interpretation of CNVs remains a challenge; however, ultrasound and biochemical screening improve the diagnosis of fetal chromosomal abnormalities. Whole exome sequencing (WES) and whole genome sequencing (WGS) play increasingly significant roles in prenatal and carrier screening for genetic disorders. NGS-based non-invasive prenatal screening (NIPS) is now widely used for detecting common autosomal aneuploidies and has shown the potential of detecting microdeletions and microduplications. However, further investigations of the sensitivity and accuracy are required and large-scale data is necessary to evaluate the performance and clinical applications of current and new methods. Recently, reports of application of newer technologies in prenatal setting became available. Examples include third generation sequencing (reading the nucleotide sequences at the single molecule level), digital PCR (used for direct quantification of DNA) and cell-based NIPT. In the followed listed papers, the authors showed their successful experiences in identifying novel mutation, detecting low-level mosaicism or de novo mutations limited in germline cells, investigating the association of the CNVs with specific phenotypic alterations by using WES, CMA, digital PCR and some other new-developed molecular techniques. More interesting, the authors also presented a report about the evaluation of diagnostic yield in fetal WES, which suggested a new tendency to apply WES or WGS directly for prenatal diagnosis. We believed that the efficiency of scanning causative mutations and prenatal or preimplantion genetic diagnosis for genetic disorders will further improved based on the technologies of whole genomic sequencing with further improved output and resolution. New techniques, such as quick-WES for the newborn in intensive care unit, direct-WGS for prenatal diagnosis and non-invasive test for fetal monogenic disorders, will become available in the near future.

The Public Life of the Fetal Sonogram

The Public Life of the Fetal Sonogram
  • Author : Janelle S. Taylor
  • Publisher : Rutgers University Press
  • Release Date : 2008-09-09
  • Total pages : 223
  • ISBN : 9780813545608
  • File Size : 42,6 Mb
  • Total Download : 728
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In The Public Life of the Fetal Sonogram, medical anthropologist Janelle S. Taylor analyzes the full sociocultural context of ultrasound technology and imagery. Drawing upon ethnographic research both within and beyond the medical setting, Taylor shows how ultrasound has entered into public consumer culture in the United States. The book documents and critically analyzes societal uses for ultrasound such as nondiagnostic "keepsake" ultrasound businesses that foster a new consumer market for these blurry, monochromatic images of eagerly awaited babies, and anti-abortion clinics that use ultrasound in an attempt to make women bond with the fetuses they carry, inciting a pro-life state of mind. This book offers much-needed critical awareness of the less easily recognized ways in which ultrasound technology is profoundly social and political in the United States today.