Non Exhaust Emissions

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Non-Exhaust Emissions

Non-Exhaust Emissions
  • Author : Fulvio Amato
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2018-01-02
  • Total pages : 342
  • ISBN : 9780128117514
  • File Size : 53,5 Mb
  • Total Download : 414
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Non-Exhaust Emissions: An Urban Air Quality Problem for Public Health comprehensively summarizes the most recent research in the field, also giving guidance on research gaps and future needs to evaluate the health impact and possible remediation of non-exhaust particle emissions. With contributions from some of the major experts and stakeholders in air quality, this book comprehensively defines the state-of-the-art of current knowledge, gaps and future needs for a better understanding of particulate matter (PM) emissions, from non-exhaust sources of road traffic to improve public health. PM is a heterogeneous mix of chemical elements and sources, with road traffic being the major source in large cities. A significant part of these emissions come from non-exhaust processes, such as brake, tire, road wear, and road dust resuspension. While motor exhaust emissions have been successfully reduced by means of regulation, non-exhaust emissions are currently uncontrolled and their importance is destined to increase and become the dominant urban source of particle matter by 2020. Nevertheless, current knowledge on the non-exhaust emissions is still limited. This is an essential book to researchers and advanced students from a broad range of disciplines, such as public health, toxicology, atmospheric sciences, environmental sciences, atmospheric chemistry and physics, geochemistry, epidemiology, built environment, road and vehicle engineering, and city planning. In addition, European and local authorities responsible for air quality and those in the industrial sectors related to vehicle and brake manufacturing and technological remediation measures will also find the book valuable. Acts as the first book to explore the health impacts of non-exhaust emissions Authored by experts from several sectors, including academia, industry and policy Gathers the relevant body of literature and information, defining the current knowledge, gaps and future needs

Non-exhaust Particulate Emissions from Road Transport An Ignored Environmental Policy Challenge

Non-exhaust Particulate Emissions from Road Transport An Ignored Environmental Policy Challenge
  • Author : OECD
  • Publisher : OECD Publishing
  • Release Date : 2020-12-07
  • Total pages : 140
  • ISBN : 9789264888852
  • File Size : 45,7 Mb
  • Total Download : 981
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Non-exhaust emissions of particulate matter constitute a little-known but rising share of emissions from road traffic and have significant negative impacts on public health. This report synthesizes the current state of knowledge about the nature, causes, and consequences of non-exhaust particulate emissions. It also projects how particulate matter emissions from non-exhaust sources may evolve in future years and reflects on policy instrument mixes that can address this largely ignored environmental issue.

Airborne Particulate Matter

Airborne Particulate Matter
  • Author : R M Harrison,R E Hester,Xavier Querol
  • Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
  • Release Date : 2016-08-18
  • Total pages : 387
  • ISBN : 9781782626589
  • File Size : 42,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 349
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The estimated health impacts and associated economic costs resulting from airborne particulate matter are substantial. Exposure to airborne fine particles ranks highly amongst preventable causes of disease. This book reviews the sources and atmospheric processes affecting airborne particulate matter and consequent impacts upon human health. Examining the latest information on the sources of particles in the atmosphere, both through direct emissions and atmospheric formation, the book also explores the methods which are used to estimate the contributions of different sources to airborne concentrations. Featuring case studies from recent assessments in Europe, the USA, China and India, the book provides a global overview of source apportionment. The health effects are reviewed in the context of the influence of sources, chemical composition and particle size upon relative toxicity. This comprehensive book is an important reference for policymakers and consultants working with pollution and human health, as well as academics working in atmospheric chemistry.

New Trends in Emission Control in the European Union

New Trends in Emission Control in the European Union
  • Author : Jerzy Merkisz,Jacek Pielecha,Stanisław Radzimirski
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2013-10-14
  • Total pages : 170
  • ISBN : 9783319027050
  • File Size : 38,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 978
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This book discusses recent changes in the European legislation for exhaust emissions from motor vehicles. It starts with a comprehensive explanation of both the structure and range of applicability of new regulations, such as Euro 5 and Euro 6 for light-duty vehicles and Euro VI for heavy-duty vehicles. Then it introduces the most important issues in in-service conformity and conformity of production for vehicles, describing the latest procedures for performing exhaust emissions tests under both bench and operating conditions. Subsequently, it reports on portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) and their application for assessing the emissions of gaseous and particulate matter alike, under actual operating conditions and in all transport modes. Lastly, the book presents selected findings from exhaust emissions research on engines for a variety of transport vehicles, such as light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles, as well as non-road vehicles, which include farm tractors, groundwork and forest machinery, diesel locomotives, high-rail vehicles, combat vehicles and special-purpose vehicles. This work offers a valuable reference guide for researchers and professionals dealing with environmental regulations and vehicle manufacturing in the European Union.

10th International Munich Chassis Symposium 2019

10th International Munich Chassis Symposium 2019
  • Author : Peter E. Pfeffer
  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release Date : 2019-11-01
  • Total pages : 829
  • ISBN : 9783658264352
  • File Size : 39,5 Mb
  • Total Download : 692
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The increasing automation of driving functions and the electrification of powertrains present new challenges for the chassis with regard to complexity, redundancy, data security,and installation space. At the same time, the mobility of the future will also require entirely new vehicle concepts, particularly in urban areas. The intelligent chassis must be connected, electrified, and automated in order to be best prepared for this future.

Energy and Environment

Energy and Environment
  • Author : Michel André,Zissis Samaras
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release Date : 2016-06-20
  • Total pages : 556
  • ISBN : 9781786300263
  • File Size : 43,6 Mb
  • Total Download : 316
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Transport systems are facing an impossible dilemma: satisfy an increasing demand for mobility of people and goods, while decreasing their fossil-energy requirements and preserving the environment. Additionally, transport has an opportunity to evolve in a changing world, with new services, technologies but also new requirements (fast delivery, reliability, improved accessibility). In this book, recent research works are reported around the triptych: "transport, energy and environment", which demonstrates that vehicle technologies and fuels can still improve, but it is necessary to prepare their implementation (e.g. electro-mobility), to think of new services, and to involve all actors, particularly enterprises, who will be the drivers of innovation. Mitigation strategies are studied to promote innovative, multimodal and clean transports and services. Research progress is reported on air pollution, vibrations and noise, their mitigation and assessment methodologies.

Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases: Scientific Understanding, Control and Implementation

Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases: Scientific Understanding, Control and Implementation
  • Author : J. van Ham,A.P.M. Baede,L.A. Meyer,R. Ybema
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2013-06-29
  • Total pages : 604
  • ISBN : 9789401593434
  • File Size : 42,9 Mb
  • Total Download : 644
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In the climate change discussion, non-CO2 greenhouse gases (NCGGs) received official political recognition for the first time in 1997, when agreement was reached on the Kyoto Protocol. As a result methane, nitrous oxide, HFCs, PFCs and SF6 now provide attractive options for detailing the national targets for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions meant to control climate change. This book is the second volume in this area and addresses three main topics. Firstly, it documents progress with respect to our knowledge of the sources and sinks of NCGGs. Information on this subject is essential in order to reduce the uncertainties in national emissions inventories which serve as the reference values for commitments of countries in the framework of the Kyoto Protocol. Secondly, this volume deals with the control options for the NCGGs and contains a wealth of information in this area. Emerging technologies here provide business opportunities, in particular in connection with the flexible mechanisms for mitigation projects in developing countries which have been agreed in Kyoto. Thirdly, the book treats the policy implementation of mitigation options for greenhouse gas emissions. Tools for control policies, both on the national and international level, and for different sectors of industry are discussed. National integrated approaches, including the ones from the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Netherlands Ministry of Environment which both sponsored the conference, provide guidance for defining the most effective greenhouse gases mitigation plans in different situations. This volume is being published in support of the IPCC Process and will serve as a reference for IPCC's Third Assessment Report.

Particulate Matter

Particulate Matter
  • Author : Dr R L Maynard,Vyvyan Howard
  • Publisher : Garland Science
  • Release Date : 2020-08-26
  • Total pages : 212
  • ISBN : 9781000102352
  • File Size : 35,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 189
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This is a rapidly expanding and highly topical research area. Written by authors and editors who are well known and respected in their fields, this text looks at the health effects caused by particulate aerosols, and discusses recent legislation and future strategies.

Environmental Challenges

Environmental Challenges
  • Author : Shimson Belkin,Shoshana Gabbay
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2000-11-30
  • Total pages : 650
  • ISBN : 0792365585
  • File Size : 46,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 196
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In the summer of 1999, an international group of experts convened in Jerusalem, Israel, in order to define the major environmental challenges facing humanity at the dawn of the new millennium and - where possible - propose ways of addressing them. Almost 50 selected articles are collected in the present book, which constitutes a striking interdisciplinary combination of state-of-the-art science with the latest views on environmental law, education, and international cooperation. Whilst a major fraction of the book is devoted to water-related issues (water quality monitoring, water and wastewater treatment, water-based international cooperation, and more), other sections deal with timely topics relating to air pollution, biodiversity, conservation, and education. The book is intended for environmental scientists, professionals, and students of all disciplines.

WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality

WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality
  • Author : World Health Organization
  • Publisher : World Health Organization
  • Release Date : 2010
  • Total pages : 488
  • ISBN : UCBK:C105261333
  • File Size : 13,9 Mb
  • Total Download : 589
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This book presents WHO guidelines for the protection of public health from risks due to a number of chemicals commonly present in indoor air. The substances considered in this review, i.e. benzene, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, naphthalene, nitrogen dioxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (especially benzo[a]pyrene), radon, trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene, have indoor sources, are known in respect of their hazardousness to health and are often found indoors in concentrations of health concern. The guidelines are targeted at public health professionals involved in preventing health risks of environmental exposures, as well as specialists and authorities involved in the design and use of buildings, indoor materials and products. They provide a scientific basis for legally enforceable standards.

Racing Toward Zero

Racing Toward Zero
  • Author : Kelly Senecal,Felix Leach
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 2021
  • Total pages : 229
  • ISBN : 1468602004
  • File Size : 46,7 Mb
  • Total Download : 632
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In Racing Toward Zero, the authors explore the issues inherent in developing sustainable transportation. They review the types of propulsion systems and vehicle options, discuss low-carbon fuels and alternative energy sources, and examine the role of regulation in curbing emissions. All technologies have an impact on the environment, from internal combustion engine vehicles to battery electric vehicles, fuel cell electric vehicles, and hybrids-there is no silver bullet. The battery electric vehicle may seem the obvious path to a sustainable, carbon-free transportation future, but it's not the only, nor necessarily the best, path forward. The vast majority of vehicles today use the internal combustion engine (ICE), and this is unlikely to change anytime soon. Improving the ICE and its fuels-entering a new ICE age-must be a main route on the road to zero emissions. How do we go green? The future requires a balanced approach to transportation. It's not a matter of choosing between combustion or electrification; it's combustion and electrification. As the authors say, "The future is eclectic." By harnessing the best qualities of both technologies, we will be in the best position to address our transportation future as quickly as possible

Urban Climates

Urban Climates
  • Author : T. R. Oke,G. Mills,A. Christen,J. A. Voogt
  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release Date : 2017-09-14
  • Total pages : 549
  • ISBN : 9780521849500
  • File Size : 22,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 373
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The first full synthesis of modern scientific and applied research on urban climates, suitable for students and researchers alike.

Health Effects of Diesel Exhaust Emissions

Health Effects of Diesel Exhaust Emissions
  • Author : Per Camner,Göran Pershagen,Ulf Ahlborg,Siv Ljungqvist,Katarina Victorin
  • Publisher : Nordic Council of Ministers
  • Release Date : 1988
  • Total pages : 36
  • ISBN : 8773032018
  • File Size : 43,6 Mb
  • Total Download : 963
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Miljørapport 1988:8

Nitrogen oxides (NOx) why and how they are controlled

Nitrogen oxides (NOx) why and how they are controlled
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher : DIANE Publishing
  • Release Date : 2023
  • Total pages : 229
  • ISBN : 9781428902800
  • File Size : 33,9 Mb
  • Total Download : 952
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PDF book entitled Nitrogen oxides (NOx) why and how they are controlled written by Anonim and published by DIANE Publishing which was released on 2023 with total hardcover pages 229, the book become popular and critical acclaim.

Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles

Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles
  • Author : Asif Faiz,Christopher S. Weaver,Michael P. Walsh
  • Publisher : World Bank Publications
  • Release Date : 1996-01-01
  • Total pages : 272
  • ISBN : 0821334441
  • File Size : 37,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 670
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Contributions by Surhid Gautam and Lit-Mian Chan. This book presents a state-of-the art review of vehicle emission standards and regulations and provides a synthesis of worldwide experience with vehicle emission control technologies and their applications in both industrial and developing countries. Topics covered include: * The two principal international systems of vehicle emission standards: those of North America and Europe * Test procedures used to verify compliance with emissions standards and to estimate actual emissions * Engine and aftertreatment technologies that have been developed to enable new vehicles to comply with emission standards, as well as the cost and other impacts of these technologies * An evaluation of measures for controlling emissions from in-use vehicles * The role of fuels in reducing vehicle emissions, the benefits that could be gained by reformulating conventional gasoline and diesel fuels, the potential benefits of alternative cleaner fuels, and the prospects for using hydrogen and electric power to run motor vehicles with ultra-low or zero emissions. This book is the first in a series of publications on vehicle-related pollution and control measures prepared by the World Bank in collaboration with the United Nations Environment Programme to underpin the Bank's overall objective of promoting transport that is environmentally sustainable and least damaging to human health and welfare.

Non-Exhaust Particulate Emissions from Road Transport an Ignored Environmental Policy Challenge

Non-Exhaust Particulate Emissions from Road Transport an Ignored Environmental Policy Challenge
  • Author : Oecd
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 2020-12-21
  • Total pages : 144
  • ISBN : 9264452443
  • File Size : 45,6 Mb
  • Total Download : 384
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Non-exhaust emissions of particulate matter constitute a little-known but rising share of emissions from road traffic and have significant negative impacts on public health. This report synthesizes the current state of knowledge about the nature, causes, and consequences of non-exhaust particulate emissions. It also projects how particulate matter emissions from non-exhaust sources may evolve in future years and reflects on policy instrument mixes that can address this largely ignored environmental issue.

Outdoor Air Pollution

Outdoor Air Pollution
  • Author : International Agency for Research on Cancer
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 2016-07-05
  • Total pages : 452
  • ISBN : 9283201477
  • File Size : 11,9 Mb
  • Total Download : 893
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This volume of the IARC Monographs series provides an evaluation of the carcinogenicity of outdoor air pollution. Outdoor air pollution is a complex mixture of pollutants originating from natural and anthropogenic sources, including transportation, power generation, industrial activity, biomass burning, and domestic heating and cooking. The mix of pollutants in outdoor air varies widely in space and time, reflecting the diversity of sources and the influence of atmospheric processes. Commonly measured air pollutants include particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10), nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide; the concentration of particulate matter is often used as an indicator of pollution levels. Millions of people worldwide are exposed to outdoor air pollution at levels that substantially exceed existing health-based guidelines. This evaluation is the culmination of a series that has examined individual pollutants that are contained in the mixture of outdoor air. Related previous evaluations have been published in IARC Monographs Volumes 92, 93, 95, 100C, 100E, 103, and 105. An IARC Monographs Working Group reviewed epidemiological studies, animal cancer bioassays, and mechanistic data to assess the carcinogenic hazards of exposure to outdoor air pollution and particulate air pollution.

Automotive Exhaust Emissions and Energy Recovery

Automotive Exhaust Emissions and Energy Recovery
  • Author : Apostolos Pesiridis
  • Publisher : Nova Science Pub Incorporated
  • Release Date : 2014-01-01
  • Total pages : 269
  • ISBN : 1633214931
  • File Size : 31,6 Mb
  • Total Download : 610
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Concerns for fuel economy and reduced emissions have turned the attention of automotive internal combustion engine manufacturers to the exhaust system and towards technological system development to account for the significant levels of potential energy that can be recovered. The present volume on Automotive Exhaust Emissions and Energy Recovery for both gasoline and diesel engines is therefore both timely and appropriate. Whereas diesel engines have been predominantly turbocharged, only a relatively small percentage of gasoline engines are similarly equipped, which has led to significant efforts by engine manufacturers in recent years to downsize and down-speed these engines. On the other hand, the relative focus in diesel engine development in terms of emissions and exhaust energy recovery has shifted toward devices other than the turbocharger for enhanced energy recovery and emissions control technologies in order to allow the diesel engines of the future to keep up with the dual-demand for very low emissions and increasing levels of fuel economy. The book focuses on the exhaust system and the technologies and methods used to reduce emissions and increase fuel economy by capitalising on the exhaust gas energy availability (either in the form of gas kinetic energy or as waste heat extracted from the exhaust gas). It is projected that in the short to medium term, advances in exhaust emissions and energy recovery technologies will lead the way in internal combustion engine development and pave the way towards increasing levels of engine hybridisation until fully electric vehicle technology can claim a level of maturity and corresponding market shares to turn the bulk of this focus away from the internal combustion engine. This book is aimed at engine research professionals in the industry and academia, but also towards students of powertrain engineering. The collection of articles in this book reviews the fundamentals of relevance, recent exhaust system technologies, details recent or on-going projects and uncovers future research directions and potentials.

The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska

The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska
  • Author : National Research Council,Transportation Research Board,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Committee on Carbon Monoxide Episodes in Meteorological and Topographical Problem Areas
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release Date : 2002-09-22
  • Total pages : 158
  • ISBN : 0309084849
  • File Size : 19,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 485
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Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic air pollutant produced largely from vehicle emissions. Breathing CO at high concentrations leads to reduced oxygen transport by hemoglobin, which has health effects that include impaired reaction timing, headaches, lightheadedness, nausea, vomiting, weakness, clouding of consciousness, coma, and, at high enough concentrations and long enough exposure, death. In recognition of those health effects, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as directed by the Clean Air Act, established the health-based National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for CO in 1971. Most areas that were previously designated as "nonattainment" areas have come into compliance with the NAAQS for CO, but some locations still have difficulty in attaining the CO standards. Those locations tend to have topographical or meteorological characteristics that exacerbate pollution. In view of the challenges posed for some areas to attain compliance with the NAAQS for CO, congress asked the National Research Council to investigate the problem of CO in areas with meteorological and topographical problems. This interim report deals specifically with Fairbanks, Alaska. Fairbanks was chosen as a case study because its meteorological and topographical characteristics make it susceptible to severe winter inversions that trap CO and other pollutants at ground level.

Emissions from Combustion Engines and Their Control

Emissions from Combustion Engines and Their Control
  • Author : Donald J. Patterson,Naeim Abdou Henein
  • Publisher : Butterworth-Heinemann
  • Release Date : 1972
  • Total pages : 372
  • ISBN : UOM:39015016521703
  • File Size : 46,7 Mb
  • Total Download : 934
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PDF book entitled Emissions from Combustion Engines and Their Control written by Donald J. Patterson,Naeim Abdou Henein and published by Butterworth-Heinemann which was released on 1972 with total hardcover pages 372, the book become popular and critical acclaim.

Nanoparticle Emissions From Combustion Engines

Nanoparticle Emissions From Combustion Engines
  • Author : Jerzy Merkisz,Jacek Pielecha
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2015-03-31
  • Total pages : 139
  • ISBN : 3319159275
  • File Size : 43,7 Mb
  • Total Download : 979
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This book focuses on particulate matter emissions produced by vehicles with combustion engines. It describes the physicochemical properties of the particulate matter, the mechanisms of its formation and its environmental impacts (including those on human beings). It discusses methods for measuring particulate mass and number, including the state-of-the-art in Portable Emission Measurement System (PEMS) equipment for measuring the exhaust emissions of both light and heavy-duty vehicles and buses under actual operating conditions. The book presents the authors’ latest investigations into the relations between particulate emission (mass and number) and engine operating parameters, as well as their new findings obtained through road tests performed on various types of vehicles, including those using diesel particulate filter regeneration. The book, which addresses the needs of academics and professionals alike, also discusses relevant European regulations on particulate emissions and highlights selected methods aimed at the reduction of particulate emissions from automobiles.