Microalgae Cultivation For Biofuels Production

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Microalgae Cultivation for Biofuels Production

Microalgae Cultivation for Biofuels Production
  • Author : Abu Yousuf
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2019-11-23
  • Total pages : 382
  • ISBN : 9780128175378
  • File Size : 29,7 Mb
  • Total Download : 381
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Microalgae Cultivation for Biofuels Production explores the technological opportunities and challenges involved in producing economically competitive algal-derived biofuel. The book discusses efficient methods for cultivation, improvement of harvesting and lipid extraction techniques, optimization of conversion/production processes of fuels and co-products, the integration of microalgae biorefineries to several industries, environmental resilience by microalgae, and a techno-economic and lifecycle analysis of the production chain to gain maximum benefits from microalgae biorefineries. Provides an overview of the whole production chain of microalgal biofuels and other bioproducts Presents an analysis of the economic and sustainability aspects of the production chain Examines the integration of microalgae biorefineries into several industries

Microalgae Cultivation for Biofuels Production

Microalgae Cultivation for Biofuels Production
  • Author : Abu Yousuf
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2019-10-15
  • Total pages : 260
  • ISBN : 0128175362
  • File Size : 31,6 Mb
  • Total Download : 967
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Microalgae Cultivation for Biofuels Production explores the technological opportunities and challenges to produce economically competitive algal-derived biofuel. The book discusses efficient methods for cultivation, improvement of harvesting and lipid extraction techniques, optimization of conversion/production processes of fuels and co-products, integration of microalgae biorefineries to several industries, environmental resilience by microalgae, and techno-economic and life cycle analysis of production chain to get the maximum benefits from the microalgae biorefineries. Provides an overview of the whole production chain of microalgal biofuels and other bioproducts Presents an analysis of the economic and sustainability aspects of the production chain Examines the integration of microalgae biorefineries into several industries

Biofuels from Algae

Biofuels from Algae
  • Author : Ashok Pandey,Duu-Jong Lee,Yusuf Chisti,Carlos R. Soccol
  • Publisher : Newnes
  • Release Date : 2013-08-08
  • Total pages : 348
  • ISBN : 9780444595829
  • File Size : 44,9 Mb
  • Total Download : 910
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This book provides in-depth information on basic and applied aspects of biofuels production from algae. It begins with an introduction to the topic, and follows with the basic scientific aspects of algal cultivation and its use for biofuels production, such as photo bioreactor engineering for microalgae production, open culture systems for biomass production and the economics of biomass production. It provides state-of-the-art information on synthetic biology approaches for algae suitable for biofuels production, followed by algal biomass harvesting, algal oils as fuels, biohydrogen production from algae, formation/production of co-products, and more. The book also covers topics such as metabolic engineering and molecular biology for algae for fuel production, life cycle assessment and scale-up and commercialization. It is highly useful and helps you to plan new research and design new economically viable processes for the production of clean fuels from algae. Covers in a comprehensive but concise way most of the algae biomass conversion technologies currently available Lists all the products produced from algae, i.e. biohydrogen, fuel oils, etc., their properties and potential uses Includes the economics of the various processes and the necessary steps for scaling them up

Advances in Biofuels and Bioenergy

Advances in Biofuels and Bioenergy
  • Author : Madhugiri Nageswara-Rao,Jaya Soneji
  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release Date : 2018-07-04
  • Total pages : 294
  • ISBN : 9781789232868
  • File Size : 30,9 Mb
  • Total Download : 241
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The worldwide consumption of fossil fuel continues to increase at unsustainable levels, which will lead to progressive scarcity, if immediate and innovative measures are not taken for its sustainable use. This scarcity necessitates the development of renewable and sustainable alternatives for fossil fuels. A possible solution to today's energy challenges can be provided by biofuels. This book intends to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of the current status and the future implications of biofuels. Diverse and aptly covered comprehensive information in this book will directly enhance both basic and applied research in biofuels and will particularly be useful for students, scientists, breeders, growers, ecologists, industrialists and policy makers. It will be a valuable reference point to improve biofuels in the areas of ecologically and economically sustainable bioenergy research.

Microalgae-Based Biofuels and Bioproducts

Microalgae-Based Biofuels and Bioproducts
  • Author : Raul Muñoz,Cristina Gonzalez-Fernandez
  • Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
  • Release Date : 2017-06-13
  • Total pages : 560
  • ISBN : 9780081010273
  • File Size : 44,9 Mb
  • Total Download : 768
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Microalgae-Based Biofuels and Bioproducts: From Feedstock Cultivation to End Products compiles contributions from authors from different areas and backgrounds who explore the cultivation and utilization of microalgae biomass for sustainable fuels and chemicals. With a strong focus in emerging industrial and large scale applications, the book summarizes the new achievements in recent years in this field by critically evaluating developments in the field of algal biotechnology, whilst taking into account sustainability issues and techno-economic parameters. It includes information on microalgae cultivation, harvesting, and conversion processes for the production of liquid and gaseous biofuels, such as biogas, bioethanol, biodiesel and biohydrogen. Microalgae biorefinery and biotechnology applications, including for pharmaceuticals, its use as food and feed, and value added bioproducts are also covered. This book’s comprehensive scope makes it an ideal reference for both early stage and consolidated researchers, engineers and graduate students in the algal field, especially in energy, chemical and environmental engineering, biotechnology, biology and agriculture. Presents the most current information on the uses and untapped potential of microalgae in the production of bio-based fuels and chemicals Critically reviews the state-of-the-art feedstock cultivation of biofuels and bioproducts mass production from microalgae, including intermediate stages, such as harvesting and extraction of specific compounds Includes topics in economics and sustainability of large-scale microalgae cultivation and conversion technologies

Handbook of Algal Biofuels

Handbook of Algal Biofuels
  • Author : Mostafa El-Sheekh,Abd El-Fatah Abomohra
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2021-12-10
  • Total pages : 702
  • ISBN : 9780128241813
  • File Size : 45,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 836
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Handbook of Algal Biofuels: Aspects of Cultivation, Conversion and Biorefinery comprehensively covers the cultivation, harvesting, conversion and utilization of algae for biofuels. Section cover algal diversity and composition, micro- and macroalgal diversity, classification and composition, their cultivation, biotechnological applications, and their current use in industry in biofuels and value-added products. Other sections address algal biofuel production, presenting detailed guidelines and protocols for the production of biodiesel, biogas, bioethanol, biobutanol and biohydrogen, along with thermochemical conversation techniques and integrated approaches for enhanced biofuel production. This book offers an all-in-one resource for researchers, graduate students and industry professionals working in the area of biofuels and phycology. It will be of interest to engineers working in Renewable Energy, Bioenergy and alternative fuels, Biotechnology, and Chemical Engineering. Provides complete coverage of the biofuel production process, from cultivation to biorefinery Includes a detailed discussion of process intensification, lifecycle analysis and biofuel byproducts Describes key aspects of algal diversity and composition, including their cultivation, harvesting and advantages over conventional biomass

Biomass, Biofuels, Biochemicals

Biomass, Biofuels, Biochemicals
  • Author : Ashok Pandey,S.Venkata Mohan,Jo-Shu Chang,Patrick C. Hallenbeck,Christian Larroche
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2019-01-12
  • Total pages : 540
  • ISBN : 9780444642042
  • File Size : 29,5 Mb
  • Total Download : 473
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Biomass, Biofuels and Biochemical: Biohydrogen, Second Edition, provides general information, basic data and knowledge on one of the most promising renewable energy sources, including its production and applications. The book describes a green technology for abating environmental crisis and enabling the transformation into a sustainable future. Researchers, students and science enthusiasts alike will appreciate this holistic view of biohydrogen production, which details the functional mechanisms employed, operational configurations, influencing factors and integration strategies. With 50% more content, this new edition outlines the scaling of processes and features material from experienced international researchers working at the interface of biotechnology and engineering. Hydrogen is an energy carrier and is available in chemically combined forms in water, fossil fuels and biomass. About 95 % of current hydrogen requirements are produced through fossil fuel sources. Being a clean energy source, its future widespread use as a fuel is likely to be in the transportation and distributed power generation sectors. Depicts a holistic view of biohydrogen in a unified approach making it a single point of reference Includes new technologies and perspectives giving up-to-date state-of-the-art information on research and commercialization Provides strategic integrations of acidogenesis with various bioprocesses essential in establishing a circular biorefinery Includes new research findings since the 1st edition appeared, with 50% more content Integrates various subjects including biotechnology, bioengineering, molecular biology, environmental science, etc. Reviews the various topics from a global perspective and an international list of contributors

Microalgae as a Feedstock for Biofuels

Microalgae as a Feedstock for Biofuels
  • Author : Luisa Gouveia
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2011-01-30
  • Total pages : 68
  • ISBN : 9783642179976
  • File Size : 49,7 Mb
  • Total Download : 810
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This Brief provides a concise review of the potential use of microalgae for biofuel production. The following topics are highlighted: the advantages of microalgae over conventional biofuel-producing crops; technological processes for energy production using microalgae; microalgal biomass production systems, production rates and costs; algae cultivation strategies and main culture parameters; biomass harvesting technologies and cell disruption; CO2 sequestration; life cycle analysis; and algal biorefinery strategies. The conclusions section discusses the contribution of the technologies described to environmental sustainability and future prospects.

Biomass and Biofuels from Microalgae

Biomass and Biofuels from Microalgae
  • Author : Navid R. Moheimani,Mark P. McHenry,Karne de Boer,Parisa A. Bahri
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2015-04-11
  • Total pages : 373
  • ISBN : 9783319166407
  • File Size : 43,9 Mb
  • Total Download : 727
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This comprehensive book details the most recent advances in the microalgae biological sciences and engineering technologies for biomass and biofuel production in order to meet the ongoing need for new and affordable sources of food, chemicals and energy for future generations. The chapters explore new microalgae cultivation techniques, including solid (biofilm) systems, and heterotrophic production methods, while also critically investigating topics such as combining wastewater as a source of nutrients, the effect of CO2 on growth, and converting biomass to methane through anaerobic digestion. The book highlights innovative bioproduct optimization and molecular genetic techniques, applications of genomics and metabolomics, and the genetic engineering of microalgae strains targeting biocrude production. The latest developments in microalgae harvesting and dewatering technologies, which combine biomass production with electricity generation, are presented, along with detailed techno-economic modeling. This extensive volume was written by respected experts in their fields and is intended for a wide audience of researchers and engineers.

Biofuels

Biofuels
  • Author : Krzysztof Biernat
  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release Date : 2018-07-11
  • Total pages : 302
  • ISBN : 9781789233469
  • File Size : 46,6 Mb
  • Total Download : 310
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This book offers the current state of knowledge in the field of biofuels, presented by selected research centers from around the world. Biogas from waste production process and areas of application of biomethane were characterized. Also, possibilities of applications of wastes from fruit bunch of oil palm tree and high biomass/bagasse from sorghum and Bermuda grass for second-generation bioethanol were presented. Processes and mechanisms of biodiesel production, including the review of catalytic transesterification process, and careful analysis of kinetics, including bioreactor system for algae breeding, were widely analyzed. Problem of emissivity of NOx from engines fueled by B20 fuel was characterized. The closing chapters deal with the assessment of the potential of biofuels in Turkey, the components of refinery systems for production of biodegradable plastics from biomass. Also, a chapter concerning the environmental conditions of synthesis gas production as a universal raw material for the production of alternative fuels was also added.

Renewable Energy

Renewable Energy
  • Author : Tolga Taner,Archana Tiwari,Taha Selim Ustun
  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release Date : 2021-02
  • Total pages : 430
  • ISBN : 9781838810009
  • File Size : 55,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 877
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This book discusses renewable energy resources and systems as well as energy efficiency. It contains twenty-three chapters over six sections that address a multitude of renewable energy types, including solar and photovoltaic, biomass, hydroelectric, and geothermal. The information presented herein is a scientific contribution to energy and environmental regulations, quality and efficiency of energy services, energy supply security, energy market-based approaches, government interventions, and the spread of technological innovation.

Sustainable Development of Algal Biofuels in the United States

Sustainable Development of Algal Biofuels in the United States
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Energy and Environmental Systems,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources,Committee on the Sustainable Development of Algal Biofuels
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release Date : 2013-01-18
  • Total pages : 247
  • ISBN : 9780309260329
  • File Size : 39,9 Mb
  • Total Download : 704
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Biofuels made from algae are gaining attention as a domestic source of renewable fuel. However, with current technologies, scaling up production of algal biofuels to meet even 5 percent of U.S. transportation fuel needs could create unsustainable demands for energy, water, and nutrient resources. Continued research and development could yield innovations to address these challenges, but determining if algal biofuel is a viable fuel alternative will involve comparing the environmental, economic and social impacts of algal biofuel production and use to those associated with petroleum-based fuels and other fuel sources. Sustainable Development of Algal Biofuels was produced at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy.

Microalgae as a Feedstock for Biofuels

Microalgae as a Feedstock for Biofuels
  • Author : Luisa Gouveia
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2011-01-31
  • Total pages : 68
  • ISBN : 3642179967
  • File Size : 37,5 Mb
  • Total Download : 582
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This Brief provides a concise review of the potential use of microalgae for biofuel production. The following topics are highlighted: the advantages of microalgae over conventional biofuel-producing crops; technological processes for energy production using microalgae; microalgal biomass production systems, production rates and costs; algae cultivation strategies and main culture parameters; biomass harvesting technologies and cell disruption; CO2 sequestration; life cycle analysis; and algal biorefinery strategies. The conclusions section discusses the contribution of the technologies described to environmental sustainability and future prospects.

Algal Biorefinery: An Integrated Approach

Algal Biorefinery: An Integrated Approach
  • Author : Debabrata Das
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2015-11-30
  • Total pages : 467
  • ISBN : 9783319228136
  • File Size : 45,9 Mb
  • Total Download : 511
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This book critically discusses different aspects of algal production systems and several of the drawbacks related to microalgal biomass production, namely, low biomass yield, and energy-consuming harvesting, dewatering, drying and extraction processes. These provide a background to the state-of-the-art technologies for algal cultivation, CO2 sequestration, and large-scale application of these systems. In order to tap the commercial potential of algae, a biorefinery concept has been proposed that could help to extract maximum benefits from algal biomass. This refinery concept promotes the harvesting of multiple products from the feedstock so as to make the process economically attractive. For the last few decades, algal biomass has been explored for use in various products such as fuel, agricultural crops, pigments and pharmaceuticals, as well as in bioremediation. To meet the huge demand, there has been a focus on large-scale production of algal biomass in closed or open photobioreactors. Different nutritional conditions for algal growth have been explored, such as photoautotrophic, heterotrophic, mixotrophic and oleaginous. This book is aimed at a wide audience, including undergraduates, postgraduates, academics, energy researchers, scientists in industry, energy specialists, policy makers and others who wish to understand algal biorefineries and also keep abreast of the latest developments.

Energy from Microalgae

Energy from Microalgae
  • Author : Eduardo Jacob-Lopes,Leila Queiroz Zepka,Maria Isabel Queiroz
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2018-02-19
  • Total pages : 306
  • ISBN : 9783319690933
  • File Size : 24,5 Mb
  • Total Download : 439
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This book presents an authoritative and comprehensive overview of the production and use of microalgal biomass and bioproducts for energy generation. It also offers extensive information on engineering approaches to energy production, such as process integration and process intensification in harnessing energy from microalgae. Issues related to the environment, food, chemicals and energy supply pose serious threats to nations’ success and stability. The challenge to provide for a rapidly growing global population has made it imperative to find new technological routes to increase the production of consumables while also bearing in mind the biosphere’s ability to regenerate resources. Microbial biomass is a bioresource that provides effective solutions to these challenges. Divided into eight parts, the book explores microalgal production systems, life cycle assessment and the bio-economy of biofuels from microalgae, process integration and process intensification applied to microalgal biofuels production. In addition, it discusses the main fuel products obtained from microalgae, summarizing a range of useful energy products derived from algae-based systems, and outlines future developments. Given the book’s breadth of coverage and extensive bibliography, it offers an essential resource for researchers and industry professionals working in renewable energy.

Handbook of Microalgal Culture

Handbook of Microalgal Culture
  • Author : Amos Richmond
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release Date : 2008-04-15
  • Total pages : 587
  • ISBN : 9781405172493
  • File Size : 37,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 952
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Handbook of Microalgal Culture is truly a landmarkpublication, drawing on some 50 years of worldwide experience inmicroalgal mass culture. This important book comprisescomprehensive reviews of the current available information onmicroalgal culture, written by 40 contributing authors from aroundthe globe. The book is divided into four parts, with Part I detailingbiological and environmental aspects of microalgae with referenceto microalgal biotechnology and Part II looking in depth at majortheories and techniques of mass cultivation. Part III compriseschapters on the economic applications of microalgae, includingcoverage of industrial production, the use of microalgae in humanand animal nutrition and in aquaculture, in nitrogen fixation,hydrogen and methane production, and in bioremediation of pollutedwater. Finally, Part IV looks at new frontiers and includeschapters on genetic engineering, microalgae as platforms forrecombinant proteins, bioactive chemicals, heterotrophicproduction, microalgae as gene-delivery systems for expressingmosquitocidal toxins and the enhancement of marine productivity forclimate stabilization and food security. Handbook of Microalgal Culture is an essential purchasefor all phycologists and also those researching aquatic systems,aquaculture and plant sciences. There is also much of great use toresearchers and those involved in product formulation withinpharmaceutical, nutrition and food companies. Libraries in alluniversities and research establishments teaching and researchingin chemistry, biological and pharmaceutical sciences, food sciencesand nutrition, and aquaculture will need copies of this book ontheir shelves. Amos Richmond is at the Blaustein Institute for DesertResearch, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel.

Algae and Sustainable Technologies

Algae and Sustainable Technologies
  • Author : Atul Kumar Upadhyay,D.P. Singh
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2020-11-09
  • Total pages : 288
  • ISBN : 9781000204629
  • File Size : 25,6 Mb
  • Total Download : 168
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Algal and sustainable technologies: Bioenergy, Nannotechnology and Green chemistry is an interdisciplinary overview of the world’s major problems; water scarcity, clean environment and energy and their sustenance remedy measures using microalgae. It comprehensively presents the way to tackle the socio-economic issues including food, feed, fuel, medicine and health and also entails the untapped potential of microalgae in environmental management, bioenergy solution and sustainable synthesis of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. This book basically emphasizes the success of algae as wonderful feed stocks of future and provides upto date information and sustainable and recreational outlook towards degrading environment and energy crisis. Applicability of fast emerging algae based nanotechnology in bioremediation and production of nanoparticle (AuNP, AgNP etc) are beautifully described along with latest research and findings. Key features: The "waste to best to income" strategies are the main concern of the book and take the edge off the problem of pollution, energy and income. Elucidate the sustainable phycoremediation and nanoparticle functions as low cost approach for various ecosystem services. Information regarding pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and other algae based value added product synthesis and fate are comprehensively discussed. Knowledge resource, latest research, findings and prospects presented in an accessible manner for researchers, students, eminent scientists, entrepreneurs, professionals and policy maker.

Third Generation Biofuels

Third Generation Biofuels
  • Author : Pratima Bajpai
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2018-10-10
  • Total pages : 76
  • ISBN : 9789811323782
  • File Size : 27,9 Mb
  • Total Download : 836
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Growing concerns about the rapid depletion of fossil fuel reserves, rising crude oil prices, energy security and global climate change have led to increased worldwide interest in renewable energy sources such as biofuels. In this context, biofuel production from renewable sources is considered to be one of the most sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels and a viable means of achieving environmental and economic sustainability. Although biofuel processes hold great potential to provide a carbon-neutral route to fuel production, first-generation production systems are characterized by considerable economic and environmental limitations. The advent of second-generation biofuels is intended to produce fuels from lignocellulosic biomass, the woody part of plants that does not compete with food production. However, converting woody biomass into fermentable sugars requires costly technologies. Therefore, third-generation biofuels from microalgae are considered to be a viable alternative energy resource, free from the major drawbacks associated with first and second-generation biofuels. This book examines the background of third-generation biofuel production; the advantages of algae over traditional biofuel crops; algal biomass production; algae harvesting and drying methods; production of biofuel from microalgae; and future prospects.

Biotechnological Applications of Microalgae

Biotechnological Applications of Microalgae
  • Author : Faizal Bux
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2013-05-22
  • Total pages : 263
  • ISBN : 9781466515291
  • File Size : 22,9 Mb
  • Total Download : 290
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Microalgae are an invaluable biomass source with potential uses that could lead to environmental and economic benefits for society. Biotechnological Applications of Microalgae: Biodiesel and Value Added Products presents the latest developments and recent research trends with a focus on potential biotechnologically related uses of microalgae. It gives an analysis of microalgal biology, ecology, biotechnology, and biofuel production capacity as well as a thorough discussion on the value added products that can be generated from diverse microalgae. The book provides a detailed discussion of microalgal strain selection for biodiesel production, a key factor in successful microalgal cultivation and generation of desired biofuel products. It also describes microalagal enumeration methods, harvesting and dewatering techniques, and the design, and the pros and cons, of the two most common methods for cultivation—open raceway ponds and photobioreactors. Chapters cover lipid extraction and identification, chemical and biological methods for transesterification of microalgal lipids, and procedures involved in life cycle analysis of microalgae. They also examine the importance of microalgal cultivation for climate change abatement through CO2 sequestration and microalgae involvement in phycoremediation of domestic and industrial wastewaters. The book concludes with a general discussion of microalgal biotechnology and its potential as a modern "green gold rush." The final chapter provides an overview of advanced techniques such as genetic engineering of microalgae to increase lipid yield. This book provides a one-stop benchmark reference on microalgal biotechnology, considering all aspects, from microalgal screening to production of biofuels and other value added products.

Microalgae Biotechnology for Development of Biofuel and Wastewater Treatment

Microalgae Biotechnology for Development of Biofuel and Wastewater Treatment
  • Author : Md. Asraful Alam,Zhongming Wang
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2019-04-30
  • Total pages : 655
  • ISBN : 9789811322648
  • File Size : 43,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 754
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This book addresses microalgae, which represent a very promising biomass resource for wastewater treatment and producing biofuels. Accordingly, microalgae are also an expanding sector in biofuels and wastewater treatment, as can be seen in several high-profile start-ups from around the globe, including Solix Biofuels, Craig Venter’s Synthetic Genomics, PetroSun, Chevron Corporation, ENN Group etc. In addition, a number of recent studies and patent applications have confirmed the value of modern microalgae for biofuels production and wastewater treatment systems. However, substantial inconsistencies have been observed in terms of system boundaries, scope, the cultivation of microalgae and oil extraction systems, production costs and economic viability, cost-lowering components, etc. Moreover, the downstream technologies and core principles involved in liquid fuel extraction from microalgae cells are still in their early stages, and not always adequate for industrial production. Accordingly, multilateral co-operation between universities, research institutes, governments, stakeholders and researchers is called for in order to make microalgae biofuels economical. Responding to this challenge, the book begins with a general introduction to microalgae and the algae industry, and subsequently discusses all major aspects of microalgal biotechnology, from strain isolation and robust strain development, to biofuel development, refinement and wastewater treatment.

Second and Third Generation of Feedstocks

Second and Third Generation of Feedstocks
  • Author : Angelo Basile,Francesco Dalena
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2019-03-23
  • Total pages : 654
  • ISBN : 9780081026564
  • File Size : 53,7 Mb
  • Total Download : 164
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Second and Third Generation of Feedstocks: The Evolution of Biofuels presents a critical analysis of both the applications and potential of bioenergy production from second and third generation feedstocks. The book illustrates different aspects of the processes used for the production of biofuels, dealing specifically with second and third generation feedstocks from biomass and algae. The pretreatment of feedstocks and optimization of various forms of bioenergy are considered, along with the economic aspects of the various processes. In the last few years, industrial research efforts have focused on low cost, large-scale processing for lignocellulosic feedstocks originating from agricultural residues and municipal wastes for bioenergy production. This book shares an insight into the recent developments taking place in this industry, exploring transformation processes as well as biomass and algae conversions. Reviews existing lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks and their sources Includes processes for the conversion of various feedstocks to biofuels Discusses current research findings on second and third generation feedstocks Describes processes involved in the transformation of algal biomass into biofuels