Marine Mammal Ecotoxicology

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Marine Mammal Ecotoxicology

Marine Mammal Ecotoxicology
  • Author : Maria Cristina Fossi,Cristina Panti
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2018-08-06
  • Total pages : 512
  • ISBN : 9780128122501
  • File Size : 43,7 Mb
  • Total Download : 942
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Marine Mammal Ecotoxicology: Impacts of Multiple Stressors on Population Health provides tactics on how to develop a comprehensive methodology for the study of existing threats to marine mammals. By presenting a conservation-biology approach and new and emerging technologies, this work helps provide crucial knowledge on the status of marine mammal populations that not only helps readers understand the ecosystem’s health, but also instigate mitigation measures. This volume provides information that helps investigators unravel the relationships between exposure to environmental stressors (e.g., climate change, pollutants, marine litter, pathogens and biotoxins) and a range of endpoints in marine mammal species. The application of robust examination procedures and biochemical, immunological, and molecular techniques, combined with pathological examination and feeding ecology, has led to the development of health assessment methods at the individual and population levels in wild marine mammals. Provides a comprehensive, worldwide update and state of knowledge on current research and topics on marine mammal ecotoxicology Includes coverage of both new and emerging technologies Features a multidisciplinary approach that gives readers a broad, updated overview of the threats facing marine mammals and related conservation measures

Toxicology of Marine Mammals

Toxicology of Marine Mammals
  • Author : Joseph G. Vos,Gregory Bossart,Michel Fournier,Thomas O'Shea
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2002-12-05
  • Total pages : 656
  • ISBN : 9780203165577
  • File Size : 10,5 Mb
  • Total Download : 211
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The activities of modern society have unleashed a range of toxic chemicals into the global environment. Many of these toxicants are now being detected in increasing quantities in the tissues of marine mammals, most notably in top predators who acquire relatively large amounts of toxic chemicals by ingesting contaminated prey. Toxicology of M

Ecotoxicology

Ecotoxicology
  • Author : Rachel Ann Hauser-Davis,Thiago Estevam Parente
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2018-05-15
  • Total pages : 554
  • ISBN : 9781315296357
  • File Size : 23,5 Mb
  • Total Download : 864
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Download Ecotoxicology in PDF, Epub, and Kindle

This book presents an integrated discussion on ecotoxicology, containing both general concepts and specific ecotoxicological issues of major biological groups, extending beyond conventional systems. It explores worldwide, regional, and biocompartmentalized topics, bringing forth new points of view on global issues and addressing the increasing diversity and complexity of the ecotoxicological field. It also contains novel information on emerging contaminants, presents bioaccumulation effects on different levels of ecological organization and risk analyses, and discusses novel fields of methodological applications, including key aspects in ecotoxicological and environmental monitoring studies.

Ecotoxicology of Wild Mammals

Ecotoxicology of Wild Mammals
  • Author : Richard F. Shore,Barnett A. Rattner
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons Incorporated
  • Release Date : 2001-04-25
  • Total pages : 760
  • ISBN : UOM:39015051275405
  • File Size : 44,7 Mb
  • Total Download : 883
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This landmark book, which contains contributions from the world's foremost mammalian ecotoxicologists, is a truly impressive summary of research undertaken in this field in recent years. It is also the first book to draw such information together in a seamless and unified approach. In examining the exposure and effects of environmental contaminants in wild mammal populations, this book addresses four core questions: * What exactly do we know about environmental contaminants in wild mammals? * What are the commonalities and differences between mammal orders/species in the effects that contaminants have? * How and to what degree of accuracy can we predict the adverse effects of environmental contaminants on mammalian wildlife? * How significant are contaminant insults compared with other density-independent and -dependent factors such as habitat loss, climatic factors and disease? The key underlying scientific principles and issues raised by the team of international authors will have significance throughout the world, making this an invaluable book not only for all those studying the effects of environmental pollutants on mammals, but also on regulatory agencies, and those carrying out environmental impact assessment.

Marine Ecotoxicology

Marine Ecotoxicology
  • Author : Julián Blasco,Peter M. Chapman,Olivia Campana,Miriam Hampel
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2016-08-05
  • Total pages : 334
  • ISBN : 9780128033722
  • File Size : 17,6 Mb
  • Total Download : 936
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Marine Ecotoxicology: Current Knowledge and Future Issues is the first unified resource to cover issues related to contamination, responses, and testing techniques of saltwater from a toxicological perspective. With its unprecedented focus on marine environments and logical chapter progression, this book is useful to graduate students, ecotoxicologists, risk assessors, and regulators involved or interested in marine waters. As human interaction with these environments increases, understanding of the pollutants and toxins introduced into the oceans becomes ever more critical, and this book builds a foundation of knowledge to assist scientists in studying, monitoring, and making decisions that affect both marine environments and human health. A team of world renowned experts provide detailed analyses of the most common contaminants in marine environments and explain the design and purpose of toxicity testing methods, while exploring the future of ecotoxicology studies in relation to the world’s oceans. As the threat of increasing pollution in marine environments becomes an ever more tangible reality, Marine Ecotoxicology offers insights and guidance to mitigate that threat. Provides practical tools and methods for assessing and monitoring the accumulation and effects of contaminants in marine environments Unites world renowned experts in marine ecotoxicology to deliver thorough and diverse perspectives Builds the foundation required for risk assessors and regulators to adequately assess and monitor the impact of pollution in marine environments Offers helpful insights and guidance to graduate students, ecotoxicologists, risk assessors, and regulators interested in mitigating threats to marine waters

Ecological Risk Management

Ecological Risk Management
  • Author : Hiroyuki Matsuda
  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release Date : 2021-05-06
  • Total pages : 314
  • ISBN : 9789813369344
  • File Size : 20,6 Mb
  • Total Download : 918
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This book introduces the theory and practice of ecological risk management. Using recent and live case studies in Japan, the book explains the use of basic mathematical techniques in extinction risk, adaptive population management, avian collision risk in wind farms, potential biological removal for marine mammals, and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals. The focus of this book is on case studies of nature conservation in Japan, including internationally renowned topics of Japanese fisheries, Shiretoko World Heritage, Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. It also covers the adaptive risk management of the new coronavirus disease. The book comprises four parts covering ecotoxicology, fisheries, wildlife management and conservation, and ecosystem-based management. It differs from other books in having its primary interest in human impacts on animals, plant, and ecosystems, while existing works in this area concentrate on the fate of toxic substances in the environments and their effects on humans. This book is unique in that it indicates various environmental issues that the theoretical ecology is potentially applicable without concentrating into any particular subject such as ecotoxicology or conservation biology. Primary readers are undergraduate/graduate students, staffs of environmental consultant companies and environmental NPOs, and journalists. Readers will find this book useful for its abundant information on case studies of ecological risk management and consensus building in Japan.

Marine Mammals of the World: A Comprehensive Guide to Their Identification

Marine Mammals of the World: A Comprehensive Guide to Their Identification
  • Author : Thomas A. Jefferson,Marc A. Webber,Robert L. Pitman
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2011-08-29
  • Total pages : 592
  • ISBN : 9780080557847
  • File Size : 42,7 Mb
  • Total Download : 144
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With coverage on all the marine mammals of the world, authors Jefferson, Webber, and Pitman have created a user-friendly guide to identify marine mammals alive in nature (at sea or on the beach), dead specimens “in hand , and also to identify marine mammals based on features of the skull. This handy guide provides marine biologists and interested lay people with detailed descriptions of diagnostic features, illustrations of external appearance, beautiful photographs, dichotomous keys, and more. Full color illustrations and vivid photographs of every living marine mammal species are incorporated, as well as comprehendible maps showing a range of information. For readers who desire further consultation, authors have included a list of literature references at the end of each species account. For an enhanced understanding of habitation, this guide also includes recognizable geographic forms described separately with colorful paintings and photographs. All of these essential tools provided make Marine Mammals of the World the most detailed and authoritative guide available! * Contains superb photographs of every species of marine mammal for accurate identification * Authors’ collective experience adds up to 80 years, and have seen nearly all of the species and distinctive geographic forms described in the guide * Provides the most detailed and anatomically accurate illustrations currently available * Special emphasis is placed on the identification of species in “problem groups, such as the beaked whales, long-beaked oceanic dolphin, and southern fur seals * Includes a detailed list of sources for more information at the back of the book.

Handbook of Ecotoxicology

Handbook of Ecotoxicology
  • Author : Peter P. Calow
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release Date : 2009-06-05
  • Total pages : 900
  • ISBN : 9781444313505
  • File Size : 15,7 Mb
  • Total Download : 832
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The Handbook of Ecotoxicology provides a readily accessible, yet critical collection of information on ecotoxicological testing. Now available in a single paperback volume, this handbook represents excellent value. Part A concentrates on techniques, especially those tests used for prediction. Thorough descriptions of the main tests are provided, followed by critical analyses in terms of ease of handling, repeatability and ecological relevance, and finally, an extensive bibliography citing key documents describing test methods and key papers evaluating them. Part B focuses on the toxicants themselves: summarising their ecological effects, describing ways of predicting effects from physico-chemical properties alone, and describing and discussing fate models. Now available as a single volume in paperback An invaluable reference resource

Ecotoxicology

Ecotoxicology
  • Author : Rachel Ann Hauser-Davis,Thiago Estevam Parente
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2018-05-15
  • Total pages : 282
  • ISBN : 9781315296364
  • File Size : 41,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 166
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This book presents an integrated discussion on ecotoxicology, containing both general concepts and specific ecotoxicological issues of major biological groups, extending beyond conventional systems. It explores worldwide, regional, and biocompartmentalized topics, bringing forth new points of view on global issues and addressing the increasing diversity and complexity of the ecotoxicological field. It also contains novel information on emerging contaminants, presents bioaccumulation effects on different levels of ecological organization and risk analyses, and discusses novel fields of methodological applications, including key aspects in ecotoxicological and environmental monitoring studies.

Comparative Immunology of Marine Mammals

Comparative Immunology of Marine Mammals
  • Author : Giovanni Di Guardo,Michael F. Criscitiello,Eva Sierra,Sandro Mazzariol
  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release Date : 2019-11-21
  • Total pages : 101
  • ISBN : 9782889632039
  • File Size : 55,7 Mb
  • Total Download : 464
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Marine mammals (MMs) are regarded as valuable bioindicators with tremendous potential for public health. However, many aspects of their immune system remain poorly understood. Monitoring immune responses of MMs is pivotal for the health assessment of both individuals and populations, as well as providing the scientific basis for analyzing the anthropogenic environmental impact on marine ecosystems and marine-terrestrial interphases. For instance, the increasing susceptibility of Mediterranean whale and dolphin populations to various diseases has been linked to a possible negative influence of multiple environmental factors on the immune system of MMs. The currently limited knowledge on MM immunology has mainly centered on: (i) lymphocyte transformation assays; (ii) natural killer cell activity; (iii) phagocytic activity and respiratory burst; (iv) humoral immune responses; (v) cytokines and (vi) acute phase immune responses. Therefore, further research is essential for deepening our understanding of the specificity of the host immune response in MMs, with a particular emphasis on the genesis and dynamics of (i) cytokine ‘networks’ or ‘signatures’; (ii) transcriptional regulation of immune cells and (iii) major immunomodulators. High-throughput molecular techniques, such as transcriptomic analysis and RNA sequencing, may enable the characterization of immune gene responses at the transcriptomic level. This integrative and holistic approach requires sophisticated tools and methods capable of unveiling the diversity of immune cells and immunologically relevant molecules that orchestrate environmental adaptation and immune protection against pathogens in MMs. This Research Topic aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge of MM immunology with a particular emphasis on structural and functional studies at the protein and cellular level. We wish to encourage and coordinate studies and investigations in order to fill gaps of knowledge in this field. This article collection aims to help gain more data regarding: a) The characterization of the immune system in several species of MMs, i.e. cetaceans, pinnipeds and sirenians; b) The interplay between the host immune system and the most relevant pathogens, e.g., Morbillivirus, Brucella, Toxoplasma gondii and c) The possible interplay between the immune system and contaminants.

Marine Mammals

Marine Mammals
  • Author : Annalisa Berta,James L. Sumich,Kit M. Kovacs
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2005-12-14
  • Total pages : 560
  • ISBN : 9780080489346
  • File Size : 20,5 Mb
  • Total Download : 953
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Berta and Sumich have succeeded yet again in creating superior marine reading! This book is a succinct yet comprehensive text devoted to the systematics, evolution, morphology, ecology, physiology, and behavior of marine mammals. The first edition, considered the leading text in the field, is required reading for all marine biologists concerned with marine mammals. Revisions include updates of citations, expansion of nearly every chapter and full color photographs. This title continues the tradition by fully expanding and updating nearly all chapters. Comprehensive, up-to-date coverage of the biology of all marine mammals Provides a phylogenetic framework that integrates phylogeny with behavior and ecology Features chapter summaries, further readings, an appendix, glossary and an extensive bibliography Exciting new color photographs and additional distribution maps

PAHs

PAHs
  • Author : Peter E. T. Douben
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release Date : 2003-07-25
  • Total pages : 404
  • ISBN : 9780470864296
  • File Size : 21,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 316
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), or polyarenes, are one of the largest and most structurally diverse class of organic molecules known. High percentages of polyarenes, representing a wide range of molecular sizes and structural types, are present in coal tars and petroleum residues. The major sources of PAHs are crude oil, coal and oil shale. The fuels produced from these fossil sources constitute the primary source of energy for the industrial nations of the world, and the petrochemicals from these raw materials are the basis of the synthetic fibre and plastics industries. PAHs are however, widespread pollutants and their impact on the environment and human health must be monitored and controlled. This book will review and assess our scientific understanding of the ecological exposure and effects PAHs have in different environments and habitats. It will accomplish this by taking the recipients of the pollution in the environment as starting points and working its way back through pathways to access what is required for our understanding of effects and rationale for control. Although this book will concentrate on ecological exposure of PAHs, the general impacts of PAHs on human populations will be touched upon. It is thought to be the first book to focus on the ecological aspects of PAHs.

Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals

Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals
  • Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Ocean Studies Board,Committee on the Assessment of the Cumulative Effects of Anthropogenic Stressors on Marine Mammals
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release Date : 2017-05-04
  • Total pages : 146
  • ISBN : 9780309440516
  • File Size : 34,9 Mb
  • Total Download : 984
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Marine mammals face a large array of stressors, including loss of habitat, chemical and noise pollution, and bycatch in fishing, which alone kills hundreds of thousands of marine mammals per year globally. To discern the factors contributing to population trends, scientists must consider the full complement of threats faced by marine mammals. Once populations or ecosystems are found to be at risk of adverse impacts, it is critical to decide which combination of stressors to reduce to bring the population or ecosystem into a more favorable state. Assessing all stressors facing a marine mammal population also provides the environmental context for evaluating whether an additional activity could threaten it. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals builds upon previous reports to assess current methodologies used for evaluating cumulative effects and identify new approaches that could improve these assessments. This review focuses on ways to quantify exposure-related changes in the behavior, health, or body condition of individual marine mammals and makes recommendations for future research initiatives.

European Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises

European Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises
  • Author : Peter G. H. Evans
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2019-12-04
  • Total pages : 322
  • ISBN : 9780128190548
  • File Size : 20,6 Mb
  • Total Download : 636
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European Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises: Marine Mammal Conservation in Practice presents an intimate view of the workings of international conservation agreements to protect marine mammals, detailing achievements over the last 25 years, identifying weaknesses and making recommendations that governments, scientists, marine stakeholders and the public can take to improve conservation efforts. The book is written by an experienced marine mammal scientist and award-winning conservationist, providing a unique synthesis on their status, distribution and ecology. In addition, it presents information on various conservation threats, including fisheries by catch, contaminants, noise disturbance, plastic ingestion and climate change. This comprehensive resource will appeal to marine mammal conservationists and researchers, as well as environmental and wildlife practitioners at all levels. Offers an accessible review on how scientists study this challenging group of mammals to gather necessary evidence for conservation action Illustrates, with striking images, all recorded regional species, including distribution maps, key threats and specific research methods Includes contributions from leading scientists, conservationists, and members of government and international bodies, like IWC and UNEP

Aquatic Ecotoxicology

Aquatic Ecotoxicology
  • Author : Claude Amiard-Triquet,Jean-Claude Amiard,Catherine Mouneyrac
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2015-06-11
  • Total pages : 518
  • ISBN : 9780128011768
  • File Size : 48,9 Mb
  • Total Download : 283
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Aquatic Ecotoxicology: Advancing Tools for Dealing with Emerging Risks presents a thorough look at recent advances in aquatic ecotoxicology and their application in assessing the risk of well-known and emerging environmental contaminants. This essential reference, brought together by leading experts in the field, guides users through existing and novel approaches to environmental risk assessment, then presenting recent advances in the field of ecotoxicology, including omics-based technologies, biomarkers, and reference species. The book then demonstrates how these advances can be used to design and perform assays to discover the toxicological endpoints of emerging risks within the aquatic environment, such as nanomaterials, personal care products, PFOS and chemical mixtures. The text is an invaluable reference for any scientist who studies the effects of contaminants on organisms that live within aquatic environments. Provides the latest perspectives on emerging toxic risks to aquatic environments, such as nanomaterials, pharmaceuticals, chemical mixtures, and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) Offers practical guidance on recent advances to help in choosing the most appropriate toxicological assay Presents case studies and information on a variety of reference species to help put the ecotoxicological theory into practical risk assess

Marsupial and Placental Mammal Species in Environmental Risk Assessment Strategies

Marsupial and Placental Mammal Species in Environmental Risk Assessment Strategies
  • Author : Professor Marcelo L Larramendy,Dr Guillermo Liwszyc
  • Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
  • Release Date : 2022-06-24
  • Total pages : 238
  • ISBN : 9781839161988
  • File Size : 54,9 Mb
  • Total Download : 477
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With the expansion of human settlements and the environmental changes brought on by human activity and pollutants, toxicology and risk assessment of mammal species is becoming increasingly of interest to toxicologists involved in environmental research. This book focuses specifically on environmental risk assessment in marsupial and placental mammals. Marsupial ecotoxicology is poorly understood in scientific research and as such environmental risk assessment in marsupials is an area of rapidly growing interest. This book will be an ideal companion to toxicologists and ecologists interested in risk assessment in the environments of mammals. Particularly those with an interest in the impact introduced by human activity. The book will also be of interest to those working in conservation biology, biological invasion, biocontrol and habitat management.

The Galapagos Marine Reserve

The Galapagos Marine Reserve
  • Author : Judith Denkinger,Luis Vinueza
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2014-01-24
  • Total pages : 314
  • ISBN : 9783319027692
  • File Size : 46,6 Mb
  • Total Download : 275
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This book focuses on how marine systems respond to natural and anthropogenic perturbations (ENSO, overfishing, pollution, tourism, invasive species, climate-change). Authors explain in their chapters how this information can guide management and conservation actions to help orient and better manage, restore and sustain the ecosystems services and goods that are derived from the ocean, while considering the complex issues that affect the delicate nature of the Islands. This book will contribute to a new understanding of the Galapagos Islands and marine ecosystems.​

Behavioural Ecotoxicology

Behavioural Ecotoxicology
  • Author : Giacomo Dell'Omo
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release Date : 2002-05-22
  • Total pages : 508
  • ISBN : 0471968528
  • File Size : 29,9 Mb
  • Total Download : 489
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Behavioural ecotoxicology is an emerging field dealing with the effects of environmental pollutants on the behaviour of animals. Behavioural techniques derived from experimental psychology, behavioural pharmacology and neurotoxicology are applied to detect and characterise changes in animals living in the environment exposed to various pollutants. Behavioural effects are then interpreted in an ecological context considering the long-term relevance of these changes at both the individual and population level.

Species Sensitivity Distributions in Ecotoxicology

Species Sensitivity Distributions in Ecotoxicology
  • Author : Leo Posthuma,Glenn W. Suter II,Theo P. Traas
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2001-12-20
  • Total pages : 616
  • ISBN : 9781420032314
  • File Size : 28,5 Mb
  • Total Download : 996
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In spite of the growing importance of Species Sensitivity Distribution models (SSDs) in ecological risk assessments, the conceptual basis, strengths, and weaknesses of using them have not been comprehensively reviewed. This book fills that need. Written by a panel of international experts, Species Sensitivity Distributions in Ecotoxicology reviews the current SSD methods from all angles, compiling for the first time the variety of contemporary applications of SSD-based methods. Beginning with an introduction to SSDs, the chapter authors review the issues surrounding SSDs, synthesizing the positions of advocates and critics with their own analysis of each issue. Finally, they discuss the prospects for future development, paving the way for improved future uses. In sum, this book defines the field of SSD modeling and application. It reveals a lively field, with SSD-applications extending beyond legally adopted quality criteria to other applications such as Life-Cycle Analysis. For anyone developing or revising environmental criteria or standards, this book explores the pros and cons of using the SSD approach. For anyone who needs to apply and interpret SSD-based criteria or standards, the book explains the basis for the numbers, thereby making it possible to correctly apply and defend them. For anyone performing ecological risk assessments, the book covers when and how to use SSDs including alternative assumptions, data treatments, computational methods, and available resources. Species Sensitivity Distributions in Ecotoxicology provides you with a clear picture of these standard models for estimating ecological risks from laboratory toxicity data.

Marine Mammals

Marine Mammals
  • Author : Peter G.H. Evans,Juan Antonio Raga
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2012-12-06
  • Total pages : 630
  • ISBN : 9781461505297
  • File Size : 53,6 Mb
  • Total Download : 773
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Interest in marine mammals has increased dramatically in the last few decades, as evidenced by the number of books, scientific papers, and conferences devoted to these animals. Nowadays, a conference on marine mammals can attract between one and two thousand scientists from around the world. This upsurge of interest has resulted in a body of knowledge which, in many cases, has identified major conservation problems facing particular species. At the same time, this knowledge and the associated activities of environmental organisations have served to introduce marine mammals to a receptive public, to the extent that they are now perceived by many as the living icons of biodiversity conservation. Much of the impetus for the current interest in marine mammal conservation comes from "Save the Whale" campaigns started in the 1960s by environmental groups around the world, in response to declining whale populations after over-exploitation by humans. This public pressure led to an international moratorium on whaling recommended in 1972 by the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm, Sweden, and eventually adopted by the International Whaling Commission ten years later. This moratorium largely holds sway to this day, and further protective measures have included the delimitation of extensive areas of the Indian Ocean (1979) and Southern Ocean (1994) as whale sanctuaries.

Principles of Environmental Toxicology

Principles of Environmental Toxicology
  • Author : I. Shaw,J. Chadwick
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2018-10-08
  • Total pages : 216
  • ISBN : 9781482284768
  • File Size : 43,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 343
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Environmental toxicology is the study of the action of chemicals upon ecosystems. Understanding the effects of exogenous chemicals upon the inhabitants of an ecosystem may enable us to predict and possibly prevent their deleterious effects. This textbook provides a good general introduction to all the major areas of environmental toxicology, including the fate of chemicals in the environment, environmental toxicity testing, risk assessment, radioactivity in the environment, legislation, environmental monitoring and the future impact of industrial development on the environment. It is written in an informal, accessible style with many examples of environmental issues taken from the author's personal experience and will provide students and other interested individuals with a broad overview of the science of environmental toxicology.