High Temperature Thermal Storage Systems Using Phase Change Materials

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High-Temperature Thermal Storage Systems Using Phase Change Materials

High-Temperature Thermal Storage Systems Using Phase Change Materials
  • Author : Luisa Cabeza,N.H. Steven Tay
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2017-12-07
  • Total pages : 344
  • ISBN : 9780081009543
  • File Size : 18,5 Mb
  • Total Download : 131
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High-Temperature Thermal Storage Systems Using Phase Change Materials offers an overview of several high-temperature phase change material (PCM) thermal storage systems concepts, developed by several well-known global institutions with increasing interest in high temperature PCM applications such as solar cooling, waste heat and concentrated solar power (CSP). The book is uniquely arranged by concepts rather than categories, and includes advanced topics such as thermal storage material packaging, arrangement of flow bed, analysis of flow and heat transfer in the flow bed, energy storage analysis, storage volume sizing and applications in different temperature ranges. By comparing the varying approaches and results of different research centers and offering state-of-the-art concepts, the authors share new and advanced knowledge from researchers all over the world. This reference will be useful for researchers and academia interested in the concepts and applications and different techniques involved in high temperature PCM thermal storage systems. Offers coverage of several high temperature PCM thermal storage systems concepts developed by several leading research institutions Provides new and advanced knowledge from researchers all over the world Includes a base of material properties throughout

High Temperature Thermal Storage Systems Using Phase Change Materials

High Temperature Thermal Storage Systems Using Phase Change Materials
  • Author : Luisa Cabeza
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2017-11-27
  • Total pages : 344
  • ISBN : 0128053232
  • File Size : 22,7 Mb
  • Total Download : 710
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High-Temperature Thermal Storage Systems Using Phase Change Materials offers an overview of several high-temperature phase change material (PCM) thermal storage systems concepts, developed by several well-known global institutions with increasing interest in high temperature PCM applications such as solar cooling, waste heat and concentrated solar power (CSP). The book is uniquely arranged by concepts rather than categories, and includes advanced topics such as thermal storage material packaging, arrangement of flow bed, analysis of flow and heat transfer in the flow bed, energy storage analysis, storage volume sizing and applications in different temperature ranges. By comparing the varying approaches and results of different research centers and offering state-of-the-art concepts, the authors share new and advanced knowledge from researchers all over the world. This reference will be useful for researchers and academia interested in the concepts and applications and different techniques involved in high temperature PCM thermal storage systems. Offers coverage of several high temperature PCM thermal storage systems concepts developed by several leading research institutions Provides new and advanced knowledge from researchers all over the world Includes a base of material properties throughout

Thermal Energy Storage with Phase Change Materials

Thermal Energy Storage with Phase Change Materials
  • Author : Mohammed Farid,Amar Auckaili,Gohar Gholamibozanjani
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2021-07-26
  • Total pages : 560
  • ISBN : 9781000406641
  • File Size : 52,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 618
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This book focuses on latent heat storage, which is one of the most efficient ways of storing thermal energy. Unlike the sensible heat storage method, the latent heat storage method provides much higher storage density with a smaller difference between storing and releasing temperatures. Thermal Energy Storage with Phase Change Materials is structured into four chapters that cover many aspects of thermal energy storage and their practical applications. Chapter 1 reviews selection, performance, and applications of phase change materials. Chapter 2 investigates mathematical analyses of phase change processes. Chapters 3 and 4 present passive and active applications for energy saving, peak load shifting, and price-based control heating using phase change materials. These chapters explore the hot topic of energy saving in an overarching way, and so they are relevant to all courses. This book is an ideal research reference for students at the postgraduate level. It also serves as a useful reference for electrical, mechanical, and chemical engineers and students throughout their work. FEATURES Explains the technical principles of thermal energy storage, including materials and applications in different classifications Provides fundamental calculations of heat transfer with phase change Discusses the benefits and limitations of different types of phase change materials (PCM) in both micro- and macroencapsulations Reviews the mechanisms and applications of available thermal energy storage systems Introduces innovative solutions in hot and cold storage applications

Latent Heat-Based Thermal Energy Storage Systems

Latent Heat-Based Thermal Energy Storage Systems
  • Author : Amritanshu Shukla,Atul Sharma,Pascal Henry Biwolé
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2020-09-27
  • Total pages : 354
  • ISBN : 9781000586930
  • File Size : 37,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 216
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In light of increasing human-induced global climate change, there is a greater need for clean energy resources and zero carbon projects. This new volume offers up-to-date coverage of the fundamentals as well as recent advancements in energy efficient thermal energy storage materials, their characterization, and technological applications. Thermal energy storage (TES) systems offer very high-energy savings for many of our day-to-day applications and could be a strong component for enhancing the usage of renewable/clean energy-based devices. Because of its beneficial environmental impact, this technology has received wide attention in the recent past, and dedicated research efforts have led to the development of novel materials, as well to innovative applications in very many fields, ranging from buildings to textile, healthcare to agriculture, space to automobiles. This book offers a valuable and informed systematic treatment of latent heat-based thermal energy storage systems, covering current energy research and important developmental work.

Phase Change Materials and Their Applications

Phase Change Materials and Their Applications
  • Author : Mohsen Mhadhbi
  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release Date : 2018-08-01
  • Total pages : 176
  • ISBN : 9781789235302
  • File Size : 24,9 Mb
  • Total Download : 604
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Today, the application of phase change materials (PCMs) has developed in different industries, including the solar cooling and solar power plants, photovoltaic electricity systems, the space industry, waste heat recovery systems, preservation of food and pharmaceutical products, and domestic hot water. PCMs use the principle of latent heat thermal storage to absorb energy in large quantities when there is a surplus and release it when there is a deficit. This promising technology has already been successfully implemented in many construction projects. The aim of this book is to assist the scientists and to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of the properties that characterize the phase change materials from theoretical and experimental perspectives with a focus on their technological applications. The present status and future perspectives of phase change material are discussed.

Thermal Energy Storage Using Phase Change Materials

Thermal Energy Storage Using Phase Change Materials
  • Author : Amy S. Fleischer
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2015-06-22
  • Total pages : 94
  • ISBN : 9783319209227
  • File Size : 22,5 Mb
  • Total Download : 349
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This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the use of solid‐liquid phase change materials to store significant amounts of energy in the latent heat of fusion. The proper selection of materials for different applications is covered in detail, as is the use of high conductivity additives to enhance thermal diffusivity. Dr. Fleischer explores how applications of PCMS have expanded over the past 10 years to include the development of high efficiency building materials to reduce heating and cooling needs, smart material design for clothing, portable electronic systems thermal management, solar thermal power plant design and many others. Additional future research directions and challenges are also discussed.

Heat and cold storage with PCM

Heat and cold storage with PCM
  • Author : Harald Mehling,Luisa F. Cabeza
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2008-08-15
  • Total pages : 308
  • ISBN : 9783540685579
  • File Size : 11,6 Mb
  • Total Download : 109
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The years 2006 and 2007 mark a dramatic change of peoples view regarding c- mate change and energy consumption. The new IPCC report makes clear that - mankind plays a dominant role on climate change due to CO emissions from en- 2 ergy consumption, and that a significant reduction in CO emissions is necessary 2 within decades. At the same time, the supply of fossil energy sources like coal, oil, and natural gas becomes less reliable. In spring 2008, the oil price rose beyond 100 $/barrel for the first time in history. It is commonly accepted today that we have to reduce the use of fossil fuels to cut down the dependency on the supply countries and to reduce CO emissions. The use of renewable energy sources and 2 increased energy efficiency are the main strategies to achieve this goal. In both strategies, heat and cold storage will play an important role. People use energy in different forms, as heat, as mechanical energy, and as light. With the discovery of fire, humankind was the first time able to supply heat and light when needed. About 2000 years ago, the Romans started to use ceramic tiles to store heat in under floor heating systems. Even when the fire was out, the room stayed warm. Since ancient times, people also know how to cool food with ice as cold storage.

Ultra-High Temperature Thermal Energy Storage, Transfer and Conversion

Ultra-High Temperature Thermal Energy Storage, Transfer and Conversion
  • Author : Alejandro Datas
  • Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
  • Release Date : 2020-09-14
  • Total pages : 368
  • ISBN : 9780128204214
  • File Size : 47,6 Mb
  • Total Download : 649
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Ultra-High Temperature Thermal Energy Storage, Transfer and Conversion presents a comprehensive analysis of thermal energy storage systems operating at beyond 800°C. Editor Dr. Alejandro Datas and his team of expert contributors from a variety of regions summarize the main technological options and the most relevant materials and characterization considerations to enable the reader to make the most effective and efficient decisions. This book helps the reader to solve the very specific challenges associated with working within an ultra-high temperature energy storage setting. It condenses and summarizes the latest knowledge, covering fundamentals, device design, materials selection and applications, as well as thermodynamic cycles and solid-state devices for ultra-high temperature energy conversion. This book provides a comprehensive and multidisciplinary guide to engineers and researchers in a variety of fields including energy conversion, storage, cogeneration, thermodynamics, numerical methods, CSP, and materials engineering. It firstly provides a review of fundamental concepts before exploring numerical methods for fluid-dynamics and phase change materials, before presenting more complex elements such as heat transfer fluids, thermal insulation, thermodynamic cycles, and a variety of energy conversation methods including thermophotovoltaic, thermionic, and combined heat and power. Reviews the main technologies enabling ultra-high temperature energy storage and conversion, including both thermodynamic cycles and solid-state devices Includes the applications for ultra-high temperature energy storage systems, both in terrestrial and space environments Analyzes the thermophysical properties and relevant experimental and theoretical methods for the analysis of high-temperature materials

Thermal Energy Storage

Thermal Energy Storage
  • Author : Ibrahim Dincer,Marc A. Rosen
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release Date : 2011-06-24
  • Total pages : 620
  • ISBN : 9781119956624
  • File Size : 32,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 650
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The ability of thermal energy storage (TES) systems to facilitate energy savings, renewable energy use and reduce environmental impact has led to a recent resurgence in their interest. The second edition of this book offers up-to-date coverage of recent energy efficient and sustainable technological methods and solutions, covering analysis, design and performance improvement as well as life-cycle costing and assessment. As well as having significantly revised the book for use as a graduate text, the authors address real-life technical and operational problems, enabling the reader to gain an understanding of the fundamental principles and practical applications of thermal energy storage technology. Beginning with a general summary of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and heat transfer, this book goes on to discuss practical applications with chapters that include TES systems, environmental impact, energy savings, energy and exergy analyses, numerical modeling and simulation, case studies and new techniques and performance assessment methods.

Advances in Thermal Energy Storage Systems

Advances in Thermal Energy Storage Systems
  • Author : Luisa F. Cabeza
  • Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
  • Release Date : 2020-10-28
  • Total pages : 796
  • ISBN : 9780128198889
  • File Size : 18,7 Mb
  • Total Download : 275
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Advances in Thermal Energy Storage Systems, 2nd edition, presents a fully updated comprehensive analysis of thermal energy storage systems (TES) including all major advances and developments since the first edition published. This very successful publication provides readers with all the information related to TES in one resource, along with a variety of applications across the energy/power and construction sectors, as well as, new to this edition, the transport industry. After an introduction to TES systems, editor Dr. Prof. Luisa Cabeza and her team of expert authors consider the source, design and operation of the use of water, molten salts, concrete, aquifers, boreholes and a variety of phase-change materials for TES systems, before analyzing and simulating underground TES systems. This edition benefits from 5 new chapters covering the most advanced technologies including sorption systems, thermodynamic and dynamic modelling as well as applications to the transport industry and the environmental and economic aspects of TES. It will benefit researchers and academics of energy systems and thermal energy storage, construction engineering academics, engineers and practitioners in the energy and power industry, as well as architects of plants and storage systems and R&D managers. Includes 5 brand new chapters covering Sorption systems, Thermodynamic and dynamic models, applications to the transport sector, environmental aspects of TES and economic aspects of TES All existing chapters are updated and revised to reflect the most recent advances in the research and technologies of the field Reviews heat storage technologies, including the use of water, molten salts, concrete and boreholes in one comprehensive resource Describes latent heat storage systems and thermochemical heat storage Includes information on the monitoring and control of thermal energy storage systems, and considers their applications in residential buildings, power plants and industry

Advanced Phase Change Materials for Thermal Storage

Advanced Phase Change Materials for Thermal Storage
  • Author : Rocío Bayón
  • Publisher : MDPI
  • Release Date : 2021-08-30
  • Total pages : 112
  • ISBN : 9783036508641
  • File Size : 48,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 972
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Thermal energy storage using phase change materials (PCMs) is a research topic that has attracted much attention in recent decades. This is mainly due to the potential use of PCMs as latent storage media in a large variety of applications. Although many kinds of PCMs are already commercial products, advanced materials with improved properties and new latent storage concepts are required to better meet the specific requirements of different applications. Moreover, the development of common validation procedures for PCMs is an important issue that should be addressed in order to achieve commercial deployment and implementation of these kinds of materials in latent storage systems. The key subjects addressed on the five papers included in this Special Issue are related to methodologies for material selection, PCM validation and assessment procedures, innovative approaches of PCM applications together with simulation and testing of latent storage prototypes.

Green Buildings and Sustainable Engineering

Green Buildings and Sustainable Engineering
  • Author : Harald Drück,Radhakrishna G. Pillai,Manoj G Tharian,Aysha Zeneeb Majeed
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2018-07-14
  • Total pages : 475
  • ISBN : 9789811312021
  • File Size : 42,6 Mb
  • Total Download : 421
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This book comprises the proceedings of the International Conference on Green Buildings and Sustainable Engineering (GBSE 2018), which focused on the theme “Transforming our Built Environment through Innovation and Integration towards a Smart and Sustainable Future”. The papers included address all aspects of green buildings and sustainability practices in civil engineering, and offer a valuable reference resource for researchers, practitioners, and policy makers.

Recent Advancements in Materials and Systems for Thermal Energy Storage

Recent Advancements in Materials and Systems for Thermal Energy Storage
  • Author : Andrea Frazzica,Luisa F. Cabeza
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2018-08-28
  • Total pages : 242
  • ISBN : 9783319966403
  • File Size : 39,7 Mb
  • Total Download : 333
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This book presents the latest advances in thermal energy storage development at both the materials and systems level. It covers various fields of application, including domestic, industrial and transport, as well as diverse technologies, such as sensible, latent and thermochemical. The contributors introduce readers to the main performance indicators for thermal storage systems, and discuss thermal energy storage (TES) technologies that can be used to improve the efficiency of energy systems and increase the share of renewable energy sources in numerous fields of application. In addition to the latest advances, the authors discuss the development and characterization of advanced materials and systems for sensible, latent and thermochemical TES, as well as the TES market and practical applications. They also report on and assess the feasibility of uniform characterization protocols and main performance indicators, compared to previous attempts to be found in the literature. The book will help to increase awareness of thermal energy storage technologies in both the academic and industrial sectors, while also providing experts new tools to achieve a uniform approach to thermal energy storage characterization methods. It will also be of interest to all students and researchers seeking an introduction to recent innovations in TES technologies.

Solar Thermal Energy Storage System using phase change material for uninterrupted on-farm agricultural processing and value addition

Solar Thermal Energy Storage System using phase change material for uninterrupted on-farm agricultural processing and value addition
  • Author : Anjum Munir,Oliver Hensel
  • Publisher : kassel university press GmbH
  • Release Date : 2019-10-09
  • Total pages : 50
  • ISBN : 9783737606349
  • File Size : 11,7 Mb
  • Total Download : 608
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Thermal energy storage technologies are gaining attention nowadays for uninterrupted supply of solar power in off-sunshine hours. An indigenized solar phase change material (PCM) system was developed and performance evaluated in the current study to efficiently store solar thermal power using a latent heat storage approach, which can be utilized in any subsequent decentralized food processing application. A 2.5 m2 laying Scheffler reflector is used to precisely focus the incoming direct normal irradiance (DNI) on a casted aluminum heat receiver (220 mm diameter) from where this concentrated heat energy is absorbed and conducted to the PCM unit by the flow of thermal oil (Fragoltherm-32 thermo-oil). During the circulation around PCM pipes inside the PCM unit, thermal oil discharges heat energy to the PCM, which undergoes change of phase from solid to liquid. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the PCM unit were also performed according to the actual boundary conditions, which gave satisfactory results in terms of temperature and velocity distribution. With an average DNI of 781 W/m2, the highest temperature of the receiver surface during the trials was observed at about 155 C that produces thermal oil at 110°C inside the receiver and around 48°C of PCM in the PCM unit. The heat energy losses per unit time (W) due to the lack of reflectivity from the Scheffler reflector, out-of-focus radiations at the targeted area, absorptivity of heat receiver, piping system losses, and cylinder losses (in the form of conduction, convection, and radiations using 50 mm insulation thickness) were found to be 110 W (10 %), 99 W (9 %), 89 W (8 %), 128 W (12 %), 161 W (15 %), and 89 W (8 %), respectively. These findings of CFD analysis and mathematical modeling were also consistent with real-time data, which was logged through an online Control and Monitoring Interface portal. The final energy available to the PCM was 414W with an overall system efficiency of 38 %, which can be improved by decreasing thermal losses of the system and using other PCM materials.

Energy and Sustainable Futures

Energy and Sustainable Futures
  • Author : Iosif Mporas,Pandelis Kourtessis,Amin Al-Habaibeh,Abhishek Asthana,Vladimir Vukovic,John Senior
  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release Date : 2021-04-29
  • Total pages : 282
  • ISBN : 9783030639167
  • File Size : 44,5 Mb
  • Total Download : 685
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This open access book presents papers displayed in the 2nd International Conference on Energy and Sustainable Futures (ICESF 2020), co-organised by the University of Hertfordshire and the University Alliance DTA in Energy. The research included in this book covers a wide range of topics in the areas of energy and sustainability including: • ICT and control of energy;• conventional energy sources;• energy governance;• materials in energy research;• renewable energy; and• energy storage. The book offers a holistic view of topics related to energy and sustainability, making it of interest to experts in the field, from industry and academia.

Solar Thermal Energy Storage

Solar Thermal Energy Storage
  • Author : H.P. Garg,S.C. Mullick,Vijay K. Bhargava
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2012-12-06
  • Total pages : 642
  • ISBN : 9789400953017
  • File Size : 28,5 Mb
  • Total Download : 126
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Energy Storage not only plays an important role in conservinq the energy but also improves the performance and reliability of a wide range of energy systems. Energy storagp. leads to saving of premium fuels and makes the system morA cost effective by reducing the wastage of energy. In most systems there is a mismatch between the energy supply and energy demand. The energy storage can even out this imbalance and thereby help in savings of capital costs. Enerqy storage is all the more important where the enerqy source is intermittent such as Solar Energy. The use of jntermittent energy sources is likely to grow. If more and more solar energy is to be used for domestic and industrial applications then energy storage is very crucial. If no storage is used in solar energy systems then the major part of the energy demand will be met by the back-up or auxiliary energy and therefore the so called annual solar load fract]on will be very low. In case of solar energy, both short term and long term energy storage systems can be used whjch can adjust the phase difference between solar energy supply and energy demand and can match seasonal demands to the solar availability respectively. Thermal energy storage can lead to capital cost savings, fuel savjngs, and fuel substitution in many application areas. Developing an optimum thermal storaqe system is as important an area of research as developinq an alternative source of energy.

Mathematical Modeling Of Melting And Freezing Processes

Mathematical Modeling Of Melting And Freezing Processes
  • Author : V. Alexiades
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release Date : 2018-05-02
  • Total pages : 340
  • ISBN : 9781351433280
  • File Size : 52,6 Mb
  • Total Download : 336
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This reference book presents mathematical models of melting and solidification processes that are the key to the effective performance of latent heat thermal energy storage systems (LHTES), utilized in a wide range of heat transfer and industrial applications. This topic has spurred a growth in research into LHTES applications in energy conservation and utilization, space station power systems, and thermal protection of electronic equipment in hostile environments. Further, interest in mathematical modeling has increased with the speread of high powered computers used in most industrial and academic settings. In two sections, the book first describes modeling of phase change processes and then describes applications for LHTES. It is aimed at graduate students, researchers, and practicing engineers in heat transfer, materials processing, multiphase systems, energy conservation, metallurgy, microelectronics, and cryosurgery.

Numerical investigation of a thermal storage system using sodium as heat transfer fluid (KIT Scientific Reports ; 7755)

Numerical investigation of a thermal storage system using sodium as heat transfer fluid (KIT Scientific Reports ; 7755)
  • Author : Niedermeier, Klarissa
  • Publisher : KIT Scientific Publishing
  • Release Date : 2019-10-10
  • Total pages : 208
  • ISBN : 9783731509301
  • File Size : 37,9 Mb
  • Total Download : 578
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PDF book entitled Numerical investigation of a thermal storage system using sodium as heat transfer fluid (KIT Scientific Reports ; 7755) written by Niedermeier, Klarissa and published by KIT Scientific Publishing which was released on 2019-10-10 with total hardcover pages 208, the book become popular and critical acclaim.

Solid-Liquid Thermal Energy Storage

Solid-Liquid Thermal Energy Storage
  • Author : Moghtada Mobedi,Kamel Hooman,Wen-Quan Tao
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2022-06-22
  • Total pages : 360
  • ISBN : 9781000598896
  • File Size : 39,6 Mb
  • Total Download : 296
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Solid–Liquid Thermal Energy Storage: Modeling and Applications provides a comprehensive overview of solid–liquid phase change thermal storage. Chapters are written by specialists from both academia and industry. Using recent studies on the improvement, modeling, and new applications of these systems, the book discusses innovative solutions for any potential drawbacks. This book: Discusses experimental studies in the field of solid–liquid phase change thermal storage Reviews recent research on phase change materials Covers various innovative applications of phase change materials (PCM) on the use of sustainable and renewable energy sources Presents recent developments on the theoretical modeling of these systems Explains advanced methods for enhancement of heat transfer in PCM This book is a reference for engineers and industry professionals involved in the use of renewable energy systems, energy storage, heating systems for buildings, sustainability design, etc. It can also benefit graduate students taking courses in heat transfer, energy engineering, advanced materials, and heating systems.

Advances in Concentrating Solar Thermal Research and Technology

Advances in Concentrating Solar Thermal Research and Technology
  • Author : Manuel Blanco,Lourdes Ramirez Santigosa
  • Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
  • Release Date : 2016-11-10
  • Total pages : 494
  • ISBN : 9780081005170
  • File Size : 51,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 349
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After decades of research and development, concentrating solar thermal (CST) power plants (also known as concentrating solar power (CSP) and as Solar Thermal Electricity or STE systems) are now starting to be widely commercialized. Indeed, the IEA predicts that by 2050, with sufficient support over ten percent of global electricity could be produced by concentrating solar thermal power plants. However, CSP plants are just but one of the many possible applications of CST systems. Advances in Concentrating Solar Thermal Research and Technology provides detailed information on the latest advances in CST systems research and technology. It promotes a deep understanding of the challenges the different CST technologies are confronted with, of the research that is taking place worldwide to address those challenges, and of the impact that the innovation that this research is fostering could have on the emergence of new CST components and concepts. It is anticipated that these developments will substantially increase the cost-competiveness of commercial CST solutions and reshape the technological landscape of both CST technologies and the CST industry. After an introductory chapter, the next three parts of the book focus on key CST plant components, from mirrors and receivers to thermal storage. The final two parts of the book address operation and control and innovative CST system concepts. Contains authoritative reviews of CST research taking place around the world Discusses the impact this research is fostering on the emergence of new CST components and concepts that will substantially increase the cost-competitiveness of CST power Covers both major CST plant components and system-wide issues

Paraffin

Paraffin
  • Author : Fathi Samir Soliman
  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release Date : 2020-09-09
  • Total pages : 92
  • ISBN : 9781838805944
  • File Size : 26,6 Mb
  • Total Download : 522
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Paraffin waxes make up the majority of commercial waxes. Waxes are characterized by the carbon number, hardness, crystal shape, composition, and molecular weight. These characteristics determine the condition of separating the wax. Paraffin wax is widely used in different industries such as ink, paper, cosmetics, ceramics using powder injection molding and energy storage as phase change materials. Consumption of wax products has increased in the world; especially for food, pharmaceutical products, cosmetics, as well as specialty products. The increase of profitability of wax production will lie in the improvement of blending and modification techniques for macro and micro-crystalline waxes used as the base materials.