Dna Methylation And Complex Human Disease

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DNA Methylation and Complex Human Disease

DNA Methylation and Complex Human Disease
  • Author : Michel Neidhart
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2015-08-11
  • Total pages : 552
  • ISBN : 9780127999203
  • File Size : 47,7 Mb
  • Total Download : 527
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DNA Methylation and Complex Human Disease reviews the possibilities of methyl-group-based epigenetic biomarkers of major diseases, tailored epigenetic therapies, and the future uses of high-throughput methylome technologies. This volume includes many pertinent advances in disease-bearing research, including obesity, type II diabetes, schizophrenia, and autoimmunity. DNA methylation is also discussed as a plasma and serum test for non-invasive screening, diagnostic and prognostic tests, as compared to biopsy-driven gene expression analysis, factors which have led to the use of DNA methylation as a potential tool for determining cancer risk, and diagnosis between benign and malignant disease. Therapies are at the heart of this volume and the possibilities of DNA demethylation. In cancer, unlike genetic mutations, DNA methylation and histone modifications are reversible and thus have shown great potential in the race for effective treatments. In addition, the authors present the importance of high-throughput methylome analysis, not only in cancer, but also in non-neoplastic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Discusses breaking biomarker research in major disease families of current health concern and research interest, including obesity, type II diabetes, schizophrenia, and autoimmunity Summarizes advances not only relevant to cancer, but also in non-neoplastic disease, currently an emerging field Describes wholly new concepts, including the linking of metabolic pathways with epigenetics Provides translational researchers with the knowledge of both basic research and clinic applications of DNA methylation in human diseases

Epigenetics in Human Disease

Epigenetics in Human Disease
  • Author : Trygve O. Tollefsbol
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2012-07-26
  • Total pages : 618
  • ISBN : 9780123884152
  • File Size : 33,6 Mb
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Epigenetics is one of the fastest growing fields of sciences, illuminating studies of human diseases by looking beyond genetic make-up and acknowledging that outside factors play a role in gene expression. The goal of this volume is to highlight those diseases or conditions for which we have advanced knowledge of epigenetic factors such as cancer, autoimmune disorders and aging as well as those that are yielding exciting breakthroughs in epigenetics such as diabetes, neurobiological disorders and cardiovascular disease. Where applicable, attempts are made to not only detail the role of epigenetics in the etiology, progression, diagnosis and prognosis of these diseases, but also novel epigenetic approaches to the treatment of these diseases. Chapters are also presented on human imprinting disorders, respiratory diseases, infectious diseases and gynecological and reproductive diseases. Since epigenetics plays a major role in the aging process, advances in the epigenetics of aging are highly relevant to many age-related human diseases. Therefore, this volume closes with chapters on aging epigenetics and breakthroughs that have been made to delay the aging process through epigenetic approaches. With its translational focus, this book will serve as valuable reference for both basic scientists and clinicians alike. Comprehensive coverage of fundamental and emergent science and clinical usage Side-by-side coverage of the basis of epigenetic diseases and their treatments Evaluation of recent epigenetic clinical breakthroughs

Computational Epigenetics and Diseases

Computational Epigenetics and Diseases
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2019-02-06
  • Total pages : 450
  • ISBN : 9780128145142
  • File Size : 44,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 873
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Computational Epigenetics and Diseases, written by leading scientists in this evolving field, provides a comprehensive and cutting-edge knowledge of computational epigenetics in human diseases. In particular, the major computational tools, databases, and strategies for computational epigenetics analysis, for example, DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNA, noncoding RNA, and ceRNA, are summarized, in the context of human diseases. This book discusses bioinformatics methods for epigenetic analysis specifically applied to human conditions such as aging, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, liver and autoimmune disorders, and reproductive and respiratory diseases. Additionally, different organ cancers, such as breast, lung, and colon, are discussed. This book is a valuable source for graduate students and researchers in genetics and bioinformatics, and several biomedical field members interested in applying computational epigenetics in their research. Provides a comprehensive and cutting-edge knowledge of computational epigenetics in human diseases Summarizes the major computational tools, databases, and strategies for computational epigenetics analysis, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNA, noncoding RNA, and ceRNA Covers the major milestones and future directions of computational epigenetics in various kinds of human diseases such as aging, atherosclerosis, diabetes, heart disease, neurological disorders, cancers, blood disorders, liver diseases, reproductive diseases, respiratory diseases, autoimmune diseases, human imprinting disorders, and infectious diseases

DNA Methylation: Development, Genetic Disease and Cancer

DNA Methylation: Development, Genetic Disease and Cancer
  • Author : Walter Doerfler,Petra Böhm
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2010-11-16
  • Total pages : 0
  • ISBN : 3642068308
  • File Size : 26,6 Mb
  • Total Download : 480
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It has become apparent that the genomes of many organisms are characterized by unique patterns of DNA methylation which can differ from genome segment to genome segment and cell type to cell type. These patterns can be instrumental in determining cell type and function. Thus, it is not surprising that studies on the role of DNA methylation now occupy center stage in many fields of biology and medicine such as developmental biology, genetic imprinting, genetic disease, tumor biology, gene therapy, cloning of organisms and others. Once again, basic research in molecular biology has provided the essential foundation for investigations of biomedical problems.

Beyond Our Genes

Beyond Our Genes
  • Author : Raffaele Teperino
  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release Date : 2020-01-24
  • Total pages : 266
  • ISBN : 9783030352134
  • File Size : 36,5 Mb
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The genotype/phenotype dichotomy is being slowly replaced by a more complex relationship whereby the majority of phenotypes arise from interactions between one’s genotype and the environment in which one lives. Interestingly, it seems that not only our lives, but also our ancestors’ lives, determine how we look. This newly recognized form of inheritance is known as (epi)genetic, as it involves an additional layer of information on top of the one encoded by the genes. Its discovery has constituted one of the biggest paradigm shifts in biology in recent years. Understanding epigenetic factors may help explain the pathogenesis of several complex human diseases (such as diabetes, obesity and cancer) and provide alternative paths for disease prevention, management and therapy. This book introduces the reader to the importance of the environment for our own health and the health of our descendants, sheds light on the current knowledge on epigenetic inheritance and opens a window to future developments in the field.

Prognostic Epigenetics

Prognostic Epigenetics
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2019-11-01
  • Total pages : 442
  • ISBN : 9780128142608
  • File Size : 18,5 Mb
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This volume provides comprehensive information on how mapping an individual’s epigenome can be medically relevant and holds the potential to improve preventive medicine and precision therapeutics at an early-stage (prior to disease onset). In order to advance clinical adoption of the recently developed epigenetic approaches, it is necessary for translational scientists, clinicians, and students to gain a better understanding about epigenetic mechanisms that are associated with a particular disorder; and to be able to effectively identify biomarkers that can be applied in drug development and for better diagnosis and prognosis of diseases. Prognostic Epigenetics is the most-inclusive volume to-date specifically dedicated to epigenetic markers that have been developed for prognosis of diseases, recent advances in this field, the clinical implementation of this research, and the future outlook. Compiles all known information on prognostic epigenetics and its role in preventive medicine and drug discovery Covers the basic functionality of epigenetic mechanisms involved in early disease prognosis and diagnosis, and provides tools for the identification and development of these biomarkers for a wide range of diseases Enables clinicians, researchers, and pharmacologists to improve preventive medicine and precision therapeutics throughout a person’s lifetime Features chapter contributions from leading international researchers

Network Medicine

Network Medicine
  • Author : Joseph Loscalzo
  • Publisher : Harvard University Press
  • Release Date : 2017-02-01
  • Total pages : 449
  • ISBN : 9780674436534
  • File Size : 10,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 220
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Big data, genomics, and quantitative approaches to network-based analysis are combining to advance the frontiers of medicine as never before. With contributions from leading experts, Network Medicine introduces this rapidly evolving field of research, which promises to revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of human diseases.

Human Epigenetics: How Science Works

Human Epigenetics: How Science Works
  • Author : Carsten Carlberg,Ferdinand Molnár
  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release Date : 2019-09-24
  • Total pages : 153
  • ISBN : 9783030229078
  • File Size : 38,7 Mb
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The view “It’s all in our genes and we cannot change it” developed in the past 150 years since Gregor Mendel’s experiments with flowering pea plants. However, there is a special form of genetics, referred to as epigenetics, which does not involve any change of our genes but regulates how and when they are used. In the cell nucleus our genes are packed into chromatin, which is a complex of histone proteins and genomic DNA, representing the molecular basis of epigenetics. Our environment and lifestyle decisions influence the epigenetics of our cells and organs, i.e. epigenetics changes dynamically throughout our whole life. Thus, we have the chance to change our epigenetics in a positive as well as negative way and present the onset of diseases, such a type 2 diabetes or cancer. This textbook provides a molecular explanation how our genome is connected with environmental signals. It outlines that epigenetic programming is a learning process that results in epigenetic memory in each of the cells of our body. The central importance of epigenetics during embryogenesis and cellular differentiation as well as in the process of aging and the risk for the development of cancer are discussed. Moreover, the role of the epigenome as a molecular storage of cellular events not only in the brain but also in metabolic organs and in the immune system is described. The book represents an updated but simplified version of our textbook “Human Epigenomics” (ISBN 978-981-10-7614-8). The first five chapters explain the molecular basis of epigenetics, while the following seven chapters provide examples for the impact of epigenetics in human health and disease.

Epigenetics

Epigenetics
  • Author : Derek J. Chadwick,Gail Cardew
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release Date : 2008-04-30
  • Total pages : 238
  • ISBN : 9780470515518
  • File Size : 15,7 Mb
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Epigenetics pertains to the development of an organism from an undifferential cell, resulting in the successive formation and development of organs and parts that did not pre-exist in the fertilized egg. An exciting and stimulating volume which used the extensive knowledge of basic transcriptional control as a foundation to explore the more complex and interesting level at which genes can be regulated.

Stress: Genetics, Epigenetics and Genomics

Stress: Genetics, Epigenetics and Genomics
  • Author : George Fink
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2020-10-24
  • Total pages : 344
  • ISBN : 9780128131572
  • File Size : 33,5 Mb
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This fourth volume in the Handbook of Stress series, Stress: Genetics, Epigenetics and Genomics, deals with the influence that genetics, epigenetics, and genomics have on the effects of and responses to stress. Chapters refer to epigenetic mechanisms that involve DNA methylation, histone modification, and/or noncoding RNA-associated gene activation or silencing. There is also coverage of epigenetic mechanisms in stress-related transgenerational transmission of characteristics, and how these may help explain heritability in some complex human diseases. The Handbook of Stress series, comprised of self-contained volumes that each focus on a specific stress area, covers the significant advances made since the publication of Elsevier’s Encyclopedia of Stress (2000 and 2007). Volume 4 is ideal for graduate students, post-doctoral fellows, faculty and clinicians interested in stress genetics, epigenetics and genomics involved in neuroendocrinology, neuroscience, biomedicine, endocrinology, psychology, psychiatry and the social sciences. Articles carefully selected by eminent stress researchers and prepared by contributors representing outstanding scholarship in the field, with each chapter fully vetted for reliable expert knowledge Richly illustrated with explanatory figures and tables Each chapter includes a boxed “Key points call out section Affordably priced, self-contained volume for readers specifically interested in stress genetics and epigenetics, removing the need to purchase the whole Handbook series

Handbook of Epigenetics

Handbook of Epigenetics
  • Author : Trygve Tollefsbol
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2017-07-10
  • Total pages : 682
  • ISBN : 9780128054772
  • File Size : 49,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 620
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Handbook of Epigenetics: The New Molecular and Medical Genetics, Second Edition, provides a comprehensive analysis of epigenetics, from basic biology, to clinical application. Epigenetics is considered by many to be the new genetics in that many biological phenomena are controlled, not through gene mutations, but rather through reversible and heritable epigenetic processes. These epigenetic processes range from DNA methylation to prions. The biological processes impacted by epigenetics are vast and encompass effects in lower organisms and humans that include tissue and organ regeneration, X-chromosome inactivation, stem cell differentiation, genomic imprinting, and aging. The first edition of this important work received excellent reviews; the second edition continues its comprehensive coverage adding more current research and new topics based on customer and reader reviews, including new discoveries, approved therapeutics, and clinical trials. From molecular mechanisms and epigenetic technology, to discoveries in human disease and clinical epigenetics, the nature and applications of the science is presented for those with interests ranging from the fundamental basis of epigenetics, to therapeutic interventions for epigenetic-based disorders. Timely and comprehensive collection of fully up-to-date reviews on epigenetics that are organized into one volume and written by leading figures in the field Covers the latest advances in many different areas of epigenetics, ranging from basic aspects, to technologies, to clinical medicine Written at a verbal and technical level that can be understood by scientists and college students Updated to include new epigenetic discoveries, newly approved therapeutics, and clinical trials

Epigenetic Biomarkers and Diagnostics

Epigenetic Biomarkers and Diagnostics
  • Author : José Luis García-Giménez
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2015-12-07
  • Total pages : 696
  • ISBN : 9780128019214
  • File Size : 10,6 Mb
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Epigenetic Biomarkers and Diagnostics comprises 31 chapters contributed by leading active researchers in basic and clinical epigenetics. The book begins with the basis of epigenetic mechanisms and descriptions of epigenetic biomarkers that can be used in clinical diagnostics and prognostics. It goes on to discuss classical methods and next generation sequencing-based technologies to discover and analyze epigenetic biomarkers. The book concludes with an account of DNA methylation, post-translational modifications and noncoding RNAs as the most promising biomarkers for cancer (i.e. breast, lung, colon, etc.), metabolic disorders (i.e. diabetes and obesity), autoimmune diseases, infertility, allergy, infectious diseases, and neurological disorders. The book describes the challenging aspects of research in epigenetics, and current findings regarding new epigenetic elements and modifiers, providing guidance for researchers interested in the most advanced technologies and tested biomarkers to be used in the clinical diagnosis or prognosis of disease. Focuses on recent progress in several areas of epigenetics, general concepts regarding epigenetics, and the future prospects of this discipline in clinical diagnostics and prognostics Describes the importance of the quality of samples and clinical associated data, and also the ethical issues for epigenetic diagnostics Discusses the advances in epigenomics technologies, including next-generation sequencing based tools and applications Expounds on the utility of epigenetic biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of several diseases, highlighting the study of these biomarkers in cancer, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, infertility, and infectious diseases Includes a special section that discusses the relevance of biobanks in the maintenance of high quality biosamples and clinical-associated data, and the relevance of the ethical aspects in epigenetic studies

Epigenetics and Complex Traits

Epigenetics and Complex Traits
  • Author : Anna K. Naumova,Celia M.T. Greenwood
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2013-09-17
  • Total pages : 341
  • ISBN : 9781461480785
  • File Size : 55,5 Mb
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This book will provide an overview of basic epigenetic phenomena; interaction between epigenetic and genetic factors; and the influence of epigenetic factors on inheritance. Epigenetic states may contribute to the penetrance of genetic polymorphisms or mutations and thereby modify inheritance patterns. This may result in non‐Mendelian inheritance of genetic traits such as observed in common human disease. The relationship between epigenetics and genetics, however, has not been comprehensively summarized yet. The topic is being more and more appreciated lately due to considerable advances in genomic and epigenomic approaches to study the origins of human disease. The editors will focus not only on describing epigenetic characteristics, mechanisms and results, but also on how considerations of epigenetics can alter interpretation and analysis of risks for complex traits. This book will be a resource for those who have been working in human genetics or analysis of human genetic data and are studying the impact of epigenetics on inheritance. An overview will be given of the impacts of inter‐individual variation in epigenetic states from major changes (errors in genomic imprinting) that cause congenital developmental defects to subtle changes and their impact on complex traits. The editors will discuss the relationship between epigenetic changes and genetic changes in human disease. Several chapters will also focus on statistical analysis of epigenetics effects, either in human disease genetic studies, or in population genetics. ​

Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation

Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation
  • Author : Suming Huang,Michael D Litt,C. Ann Blakey
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2015-10-19
  • Total pages : 482
  • ISBN : 9780128004715
  • File Size : 28,7 Mb
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Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation reviews current knowledge on the heritable molecular mechanisms that regulate gene expression, contribute to disease susceptibility, and point to potential treatment in future therapies. The book shows how these heritable mechanisms allow individual cells to establish stable and unique patterns of gene expression that can be passed through cell divisions without DNA mutations, thereby establishing how different heritable patterns of gene regulation control cell differentiation and organogenesis, resulting in a distinct human organism with a variety of differing cellular functions and tissues. The work begins with basic biology, encompasses methods, cellular and tissue organization, topical issues in epigenetic evolution and environmental epigenesis, and lastly clinical disease discovery and treatment. Each highly illustrated chapter is organized to briefly summarize current research, provide appropriate pedagogical guidance, pertinent methods, relevant model organisms, and clinical examples. Reviews current knowledge on the heritable molecular mechanisms that regulate gene expression, contribute to disease susceptibility, and point to potential treatment in future therapies Helps readers understand how epigenetic marks are targeted, and to what extent transgenerational epigenetic changes are instilled and possibly passed onto offspring Chapters are replete with clinical examples to empower the basic biology with translational significance Offers more than 100 illustrations to distill key concepts and decipher complex science

Transgenerational Epigenetics

Transgenerational Epigenetics
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2019-05-18
  • Total pages : 518
  • ISBN : 9780128167335
  • File Size : 36,9 Mb
  • Total Download : 211
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Transgenerational Epigenetics, Second Edition, offers the only up-to-date, comprehensive analysis of the inheritance of epigenetic phenomena between generations with an emphasis on human disease relevance, drug discovery, and next steps in clinical translation. International experts discuss mechanisms of epigenetic inheritance, its expression in animal and plant models, and how human ailments, such as metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease are influenced by transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. Where evidence is sufficient, epigenetic clinical interventions are proposed that may help prevent or reduce the severity of disease before offspring are born. This edition has been thoroughly revised in each disease area, featuring newly researched actors in epigenetic regulation, including long noncoding RNA in addition to histone modifications and DNA methylation. Therapeutic pathways in treating cancer and extending human longevity are also considered, as are current debates and future directions for research. Presents a fully-updated and expanded release addressing transgenerational epigenetics, epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation, and the role of epigenetics in human longevity and cancer Examines the field from "bench-to-bedside", discussing basic science, disease management, current debates, and next steps in epigenetic research and drug discovery Features chapter contributions from international experts

Epigenetic Epidemiology

Epigenetic Epidemiology
  • Author : Karin B. Michels
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2012-01-02
  • Total pages : 448
  • ISBN : 9789400724952
  • File Size : 46,7 Mb
  • Total Download : 687
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The exploding field of epigenetics is challenging the dogma of traditional Mendelian inheritance. Epigenetics plays an important role in shaping who we are and contributes to our prospects of health and disease. While early epigenetic research focused on plant and animal models and in vitro experiments, population-based epidemiologic studies increasingly incorporate epigenetic components. The relevance of epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation, genomic imprinting, and histone modification for disease causation has yet to be fully explored. This book covers the basic concepts of epigenetic epidemiology, discusses challenges in study design, analysis, and interpretation, epigenetic laboratory techniques, the influence of of age and environmental factors on shaping the epigenome, the role of epigenetics in the developmental origins hypothesis, and provides the state of the art on the epigenetic epidemiology of various health conditions including childhood syndromes, cancer, infectious diseases, inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders, psychiatric disorders, diabetes, obesity and metabolic disorders, and atherosclerosis. With contributions from: Peter Jones, Jean-Pierre Issa, Gavin Kelsey, Robert Waterland, and many other experts in epigenetics!

Environmental Epigenetics

Environmental Epigenetics
  • Author : L. Joseph Su,Tung-chin Chiang
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2015-05-18
  • Total pages : 321
  • ISBN : 9781447166788
  • File Size : 29,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 364
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This book examines the toxicological and health implications of environmental epigenetics and provides knowledge through an interdisciplinary approach. Included in this volume are chapters outlining various environmental risk factors such as phthalates and dietary components, life states such as pregnancy and ageing, hormonal and metabolic considerations and specific disease risks such as cancer cardiovascular diseases and other non-communicable diseases. Environmental Epigenetics imparts integrative knowledge of the science of epigenetics and the issues raised in environmental epidemiology. This book is intended to serve both as a reference compendium on environmental epigenetics for scientists in academia, industry and laboratories and as a textbook for graduate level environmental health courses. Environmental Epigenetics imparts integrative knowledge of the science of epigenetics and the issues raised in environmental epidemiology. This book is intended to serve both as a reference compendium on environmental epigenetics for scientists in academia, industry and laboratories and as a textbook for graduate level environmental health courses.

Dynamic regulation of DNA methylation in human T-cell biology

Dynamic regulation of DNA methylation in human T-cell biology
  • Author : Antonio Lentini
  • Publisher : Linköping University Electronic Press
  • Release Date : 2019-03-19
  • Total pages : 56
  • ISBN : 9789176851074
  • File Size : 9,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 230
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T helper cells play a central role in orchestrating immune responses in humans. Upon encountering a foreign antigen, T helper cells are activated followed by a differentiation process where the cells are specialised to help combating the infection. Dysregulation of T helper cell activation, differentiation and function has been implicated in numerous diseases, including autoimmunity and cancer. Whereas gene-regulatory networks help drive T-cell differentiation, acquisition of stable cell states require heritable epigenetic signals, such as DNA methylation. Indeed, the establishment of DNA methylation patterns is a key part of appropriate T-cell differentiation but how this is regulated over time remains unknown. Methylation can be directly attached to cytosine residues in DNA to form 5-methylcytosine (5mC) but the removal of DNA methylation requires multiple enzymatic reactions, commonly initiated by the conversion into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), thus creating a highly complex regulatory system. This thesis aimed to investigate how DNA methylation is dynamically regulated during T-cell differentiation. To this end, we employed large-scale profiling techniques combining gene expression as well as genome-wide 5mC and 5hmC measurements to construct a time-series model of epigenetic regulation of differentiation. This revealed that early T-cell activation was accompanied by extensive genome-wide deposition of 5hmC which resulted in demethylation upon proliferation. Early DNA methylation remodelling through 5hmC was not only indicative of demethylation events during T-cell differentiation but also marked changes persisting longterm in memory T-cell subsets. These results suggest that priming of epigenetic landscapes in T-cells is initiated during early activation events, preceding any establishment of a stable lineage, which are then maintained throughout the cells lifespan. The regions undergoing remodelling were also highly enriched for genetic variants in autoimmune diseases which we show to be functional through disruption of protein binding. These variants could potentially disrupt gene-regulatory networks and the establishment of epigenetic priming, highlighting the complex interplay between genetic and epigenetic layers. In the course of this work, we discovered that a commonly used technique to study genome-wide DNA modifications, DNA immunoprecipitation (DIP)-seq, had a false discovery rate between 50-99% depending on the modification and cell type being assayed. This represented inherent technical errors related to the use of antibodies resulting in off-target binding of repetitive sequences lacking any DNA modifications. These sequences are common in mammalian genomes making robust detection of rare DNA modifications very difficult due to the high background signals. However, offtarget binding could easily be controlled for using a non-specific antibody control which greatly improved data quality and biological insight of the data. Although future studies are advised to use alternative methods where available, error correction is an acceptable alternative which will help fuel new discoveries through the removal of extensive background signals. Taken together, this thesis shows how integrative use of high-resolution epigenomic data can be used to study complex biological systems over time as well as how these techniques can be systematically characterised to identify and correct errors resulting in improved detection.

Molecular Biology of DNA Methylation

Molecular Biology of DNA Methylation
  • Author : Roger L.P. Adams,Roy H. Burdon
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 1985-11-22
  • Total pages : 272
  • ISBN : UOM:39015009566715
  • File Size : 41,5 Mb
  • Total Download : 304
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During the past few decades we have witnessed an era of remarkable growth in the field of molecular biology. In 1950 very little was known of the chemical constitution of biological systems, the manner in which in formation was transmitted from one organism to another, or the extent to which the chemical basis of life is unified. The picture today is dramati cally different. We have an almost bewildering variety of information detailing many different aspects of life at the molecular level. These great advances have brought with them some breath-taking insights into the molecular mechanisms used by nature for replicating, distributing and modifying biological information. We have learned a great deal about the chemical and physical nature of the macromolecular nucleic acids and proteins, and the manner in which carbohydrates, lipids and smaller mole cules work together to provide the molecular setting of living systems. It might be said that these few decades have replaced a near vacuum of information with a very large surplus. It is in the context of this flood of information that this series of mono graphs on molecular biology has been organized. The idea is to bring together in one place, between the covers of one book, a concise assess ment of the state of the subject in a well-defined field.

Epigenetics

Epigenetics
  • Author : C. David Allis,Thomas Jenuwein,Danny Reinberg,Marie-Laure Caparros
  • Publisher : CSHL Press
  • Release Date : 2007
  • Total pages : 503
  • ISBN : 9780879697242
  • File Size : 52,8 Mb
  • Total Download : 152
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The regulation of gene expression in many biological processes involves epigenetic mechanisms. In this new volume, 24 chapters written by experts in the field discuss epigenetic effects from many perspectives. There are chapters on the basic molecular mechanisms underpinning epigenetic regulation, discussion of cellular processes that rely on this kind of regulation, and surveys of organisms in which it has been most studied. Thus, there are chapters on histone and DNA methylation, siRNAs and gene silencing; X-chromosome inactivation, dosage compensation and imprinting; and discussion of epigenetics in microbes, plants, insects, and mammals. The last part of the book looks at how epigenetic mechanisms act in cell division and differentiation, and how errors in these pathways contribute to cancer and other human diseases. Also discussed are consequences of epigenetics in attempts to clone animals. This book is a major resource for those working in the field, as well as being a suitable text for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses on gene regulation.

Environmental Epigenomics in Health and Disease

Environmental Epigenomics in Health and Disease
  • Author : Randy L. Jirtle,Frederick L. Tyson
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2013-05-13
  • Total pages : 339
  • ISBN : 9783642368271
  • File Size : 55,7 Mb
  • Total Download : 262
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There are now compelling human epidemiological and animal experimental data that indicate the risk of developing adult-onset complex diseases and neurological disorders are influenced by persistent epigenetic adaptations in response to prenatal and early postnatal exposures to environmental factors. Epigenetics refers to heritable changes in gene function that occur without a change in the sequence of the DNA. The main components of the epigenetic code are DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs. The epigenetic programs are established as stem cell differentiate during embryogenesis, and they are normally faithfully reproduced during mitosis. Moreover, they can also be maintained during meiosis, resulting in epigenetic transgenerational disease inheritance, and also potentially introducing phenotypic variation that is selected for in the evolution of new species. The objective of this two volume book is to provide evidence that environmental exposures during early development can alter the risk of developing medical conditions, such as asthma, autism, cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and schizophrenia later in life by modifying the epigenome. Consequently, epigenetic research promises to markedly improve our ability to diagnosis, prevent, and treat the pathological conditions of humans; however, it also introduces unique legal and ethical issues. This volume highlights the correlation between environmental factors and complex diseases, such as autism, addiction, neurological diseases, diabetes, obesity and cancer. It concludes with a chapter on legal and ethical implications of epigenetics. ​